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Lecture 5

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HIST 2800
Linda Mahood

HIST*2800-01; Feb.13/13; Manhood Pg. 1/4 Lecture 5 - Tonight we are looking at youth o Adolescence and risk-taking behaviours, family, work Proletarianization of Parenthood: The Indian Residential School - In Marxist theory, the proletariats are the workers o Bourgeois are the bosses Clash of Culture, 1600-1800: - Christian tradition - Sex lives of Native peoples were “savage” - ‘Heathen-friskiness’ o European fur traders wrote this in their journals  Viewed Native’s activities as sexual - Impunity and immorality - Gross sensuality - Europeans saw Natives as savage, didn’t understand their culture o Noticed things such as cross dressers, polygamy - Europeans had a sense of cultural superiority over Native people o Thought the best thing for Native Americans was to convert them to Christianity and save their souls - Nudity was considered sinful to European Christians First Nations and European Settlers: - Parenthood serving the needs of the state - First Nation’s family shaped by economy and colonial relations - Child-rearing shaped theories of child development - Monogamous marriage was imposed on Native Americans by European settlers Three significant Canadians regarding social policy: - Edgar Ryerson - Duncan Campbell Scott - Clifford Sifton - Indian Act wanted to settle Native Americans down (prevent their traditional migratory ways) and have children educated in school rather than following their parents on hunting expeditions o Replace traditional ways of educating children o Wanted to have the schools teach children instead of the parents - The schools these children would be placed in would be residential or boarding schools, not day school o It was thought that the lessons learned during the day would be erased when the child went home to their family - The Chief only had control over whether a teacher was Roman Catholic or Anglican- Protestant - The idea was to use schools to convert children - 2/4 - In the 1920s, Scott said that the best thing for Canada was to continue educating Native Americans until there were none left o Essentially wiping their culture out Traditional Shuswap Life: - Children learned through watching their parents - First Nations’ kids were integrated o Participated in everything alongside their parents - The Grandmother o In many cases, the grandparents did the real hands-on parenting when the parents were gone/working - The Oblate Brotherhood o To civilize and Christianize o Roman Catholic order o Settled into B.C with missionary zeal o Missionaries wanted the Natives to stop migrating so they could build churches to Christianize and civilize them Spare the Rod and Spoil the Child: - From child-rearing theories of original sin and infant depravity to Locke’s ‘malleable’ clay - ‘…Indian Child was a product of sin and the soul needed saving…’ o ‘Justified harsh, punitive and authoritarian practices to break child’s will…’ - Missionaries had a hard time seeing anything good in Native family structures (or poor families as well for that matter) Pseudo-family Institutions: - Ideals and values of the family or family life (the culture) could be reproduced in non- familial settings - Inside the Indian Residential School, staff replaced the parents as the primary socializers of children - Pseudo-family of the institution would be superior to the real family of the students - Basic curriculum for Native children in residential schools o It was felt that the Native children didn’t need to be given a great education because they probably wouldn’t use it - The real values of the school were actually obeying authority (the hidden curriculum) o Punctuality o Discipline o Obedience o Submission to authority - Many of the missionaries thought they were genuinely helping Native children - Children were taken from parents and put into these schools o It was law - Students stayed in the school from June to August o Children were rounded up with trucks that came and collected kids once a year - Prohibited from speaking their native language - Young girls and boys both had short hair and w
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