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Lecture 8

Lecture 8

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HIST 2800
Linda Mahood

HIST*2800-01; Mar. 13/13; Mahood Pg. 1/6 Lecture 8 Midterm 2: - Readings: o Cunningham 5, 7 and 6 o Demos and Demos o R. Wood o B. Wilson o Video: 7 Up! o Declaration of the Rights of the Child o Indian Residential School Settlement o Adler and Adler, ‘Tiny Dopers’ - Essay themes o Adolescent socialization and resistance o Schooling and education o Children’s rights - FINAL EXAM will be almost exclusively based on Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America by D’Emilio and Freedman Child-Saving: From the Child in Danger to Dangerous Child - A child, if not saved, would become a dangerous child - In all historical sources, we know how people see the poor o i.e charities, police, YMCA Families on Trial: - Hard to know how the poor saw the rich o They left very little paper evidence behind  Therefore, a “hidden history” - It was believed the rising rates of all social evils (poverty etc.) were from the parents - There was a concern for boys o If they were allowed to work in the streets, they would decay morally (i.e smoke, gamble, swear) - There was a concern for children seeing love-themed or suggestive-type films o Could encourage lads to indulge in immoral habitats with either themselves or girls  With themselves -> people worried about possible homosexuality - Criminal behaviour for girls didn’t focus on thieving, gambling, or violence o It was almost always sexual deviance o If a girl grew up in an overgrown flat, she could easily become a prostitute - Very pessimistic view of the poor and how they could easily become corrupt 2/6 - After the 1920s, tattoos became a sign of juvenile delinquency for girls Child-savers: “they would take you a lot quicker then…”: - Poorhouse (parish inspectors and home visitors) - School boards (teachers and truancy officers) – 1870s o Teachers involved in reporting things  i.e child neglect, dirty children, hungry children - Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Children – 1880s o Report what were perceived as acts of cruelty  Kids sleeping in ditches, kids wandering the streets/homeless - Emmigration Schemes (Dr. Barnardo) o Kids emigrating to numerous countries o Thousands of Barnardo kids came to Canada - YMCA/YWCA, Scouts Temperance o Positive role set by middle class teens/adolescence working there - Youth clubs – 1880s Institutions for Children at Risk: - Reform school (12+) o The American term - Industrial school (12-) - Training ship (boys only) o In Britain  Get large training ships and teach delinquent boys to be sailors - Magdalene institutions (girls only) o Girls associated with prostitution - Industrial Day School (truancy cases) - Temporary shelters and fosters homes - Probation (1907) o In Canada and UK, a child wouldn’t have to go to a child’s prison but probation officers would come and visit the child’s home o It was felt like this was an extreme surveillance and tended to penetrate/disrupt families Family Court Proceedings: - Court, police, school boards, Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Children - Concerned neighbours or teachers could report children they felt were neglected or mistreated - No plea, no warrant - Statistics (3:1) o For every girl taken into custody, there were 3 boys taken in  Boys tended to be younger and had been given probation or prior warnings  Girls tended to be older and did not have previous warnings/probation 3/6 • First offense - Boys were considered “bunglers in crime…” - Parents could take their children in to see the magistrate - There was this idea that girls were vulnerable to temptation - The idea was that you needed to be cruel to be kind - The courts were harsher on girls than boys o Chivalry – trying to protect them from going bad The Disruption of Family’s Ties: - Some institutions had dormitories, all had chapels o Prayer was a part of their education - Idea of homes was that they would reflect respectable family life o The poor boys might become servants to respectable families - Hierarchy was a heritable thing - The school became a microcosm with all the different backgrounds and class levels of its kids Education and Industrial Training: - The kids were expected to be “hewers of wood and drawers of water” - Poor working boys were prepared for basic work Girls: “train intelligence with domestic service in view…”: - Girls got even less of an education than boys o Educated for domestic service Discipline: - Prison-like rule - Christianity was very strict and authoritarian o Very much like that in the Indian Residential School - Solitary confinement or isolation rooms o A type of punishment - Positive reinforcement - Holding therapies o Introduced in the 40s - Corporal punishment o Much more corporal punishment used earlier in time  i.e whipping o Later replaced more with solitary confinement/isolation rooms - Domestic violence can be the reason the child is sent to a school o Originally punished at home, but then punished at the school as well 4/6 “I want to marry a Teddy Boy…” - Youth culture - Listened to Elvis - Wore long suits and slicked their hair back - In the schools, there was institutional abuse even though the schools were developed to help children - Kids had survival techniques The Gendered Delinquent: - Measures of success were not confined to admission and di
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