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HIST 3020 (17)

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University of Guelph
HIST 3020
Caitlin Holton

Interactions between and across genders Feb 4 2014 1. Definitions a. Patriarchy i. The system deriving from greek and roman law ii. Male head of the house has absolute economic and legal control over all female and male household members iii. Limited social and historical application iv. The manifestation and institutionalization of male dominance over women and children in the family and the extension of male dominance over women in the society in general v. It implies that men hold power in all the important instutitions of society and that women are derived of access to such power vi. It does not imply that women are either totally powerless or totally deprived of rights, influence and resources b. Androcentric i. Practice (whether contiously intended or not) of placing male experiences and masculine perspectives in the centre of ones view ii. Philosophical orientation toward the world; thinking of men as superior or default c. Heterosexual culture i. Cultural manifestation of man/woman pairings and symbolic and real dominance of these pairings ii. All cultures have had an element of heterosexual practice iii. Not a universal model d. Homosocial culture i. Cultural manifestation of single gender pairings in society in real or symbolic dominance ii. Separating sexual practice from social primacy iii. What relationships are central to societies organization and well orderedness e. Homoerotic i. Same-sex frienships that are based on intimacy and extend over a wide range of emotions; physical intimacy but not necessarily a sexual relationship ii. Not associated with a specific group identity iii. Possibility of desire and urges without consummation turns us away from genital sexuality and opens to other ideas iv. Broadening our categories and looking at other understandings of emotional and physical relationships of those of the same sex 2. relationships between men a. masculinity is about proving itself between men rather than proving themselves between men and women b. contradictions and complexities are more apparent between homosocial relationships c. defined in terms of relationships with other men, these relationships hold important cues for masculine identity d. physical elements of relationships in the past e. two men kissing on the lips offers the idea of the physicality and not intent that makes something erotic f. kissing in the middle ages i. physical kiss, 1. imprint of the lip 2. sign of reconciliation 3. sign of peace 4. sign of love for husband and wife or between friends after a long absence 5. sign of catholic unity when a guest is recieved ii. spiritual kiss 1. joining of the spirits iii. and intellectual kiss 1. infusion of grace by the spirit of god g. johnathan and david i. huge implications for homoeroticism h. lord and vassal i. the lord: offers protection, support and income (fief) ii. the vassal: provides loyalty, military service and counsel iii. performance of homage and oath to fealty iv. personal and performative v. exchange and both sides benefit vi. structured relationship but also intensely personal vii. the bruce 1. c. 1370 2. the account of Robert the bruce and the Scottish wars of independence 3. central relationship between Robert the bruce (r. 1306-29) and james douglas i. brother in arms i. roland and olver, ami and amile, lancelot and galehot ii. adoptive kinship based upon sworn covenant iii. proliferated during the 14 and 15 centuries but appear with less frequency before iv. written or verbal agreements, both had the force of law v. financial and practical arrangement or emotional and intimate relationship? vi. Two men that aren’t blood related pledge their friendship and loyalty vii. William Neville and john clanvowe 1. Kissing in tombstone 2. Shields represent a marriage j. Friend i. Friendship didn’t really mean the same thing as it does today ii. Its appropriate to kiss your friend if you haven’t seem them in a while iii. Aelred of rievaulx; 1110-1167 1. Friendship was one heart, one soul 2. Wrote de spirituali amicitia 3. ‘with its sweetness it is a foundation for all the virtues, and with its vurtie it destroys the vices’ 4. a friendless person is like an animal, having no one in whom to rejoice in prosperity and grieve in sadness 3. relationships between men and women a. feudal marriage i. primary tie between man and woman ii. maritalis affection + debitum conjugalis iii. lay/aristocratic model 1. secular institution, lay and social order, emphasis on fertility 2. garner social and political conncetions (consanguinity, affinity, spiritual relationships) 3. agent of political stabilization and social reproduction 4. sign of a good marriage is pregnancy, legitimacy rides upon the idea of virginity 5. controls inheritance 6. goals: protect and expand the patrimony, maintain the economic, social and poltical position of its members 7. tenets: absolute condemnation of a wife’s adultery, monogamy is not required, endogamy (marrying families together, bringing lands together) iv. ecclesiastic model 1. religious institution, divine and sacred order, limit the
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