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Crime and Age.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIST 3130
Professor
Ashley Mathisen
Semester
Fall

Description
Crime and Age: Juvenile Delinquents Defining Adolescence: Liminality .historians have borrowed the concept of liminality from anthropologists. Liminality was defined by the anthropologist victor turner as a period ‘betwixt and between’ an in-between state. The limited stage is ended by a ‘rite of passage’ which marks the beginning of full belonging in a given society. Apprenticeship was the rite of passage that brought a child into adulthood, if they didn’t it was likely th th marriage, however in the 18 and 19 century education slowly became a rite of passage once graduating. 18 -century paradigms of childhood: locke and rousseau John locke and rousseau’s supporters seemed to have an ideological divide. Locke made the thoughts concerning education stating that children were essentially blank states that could be filled with knowledge and experience starting essentially blank. Argued for children to be pushed into the world to have experiences to establish their character. Rousseau argued a few decades later that children shouldn’t be pushed into the world as they were fundamentally innocent, child needed to develop at his/her own pace. Middle and upper class children seen as ideal adolescents while lower class children were not seen as being protectable so they get pushed into the world and become delinquents Disorderly Youth .traditional view of adolescents saw them as a troublesome and dangerous social problem. Weren’t seen as fully adults or children. Apprentices in particular were condemned for causing urban disordeth(ie spectacles like the feast of fools). View of apprentices as disorderly continued into the 18 century and was conflated with discourses on the problems of poverty and servants th .overall childhood was lengthening during the 18 century – conceptualized as a long stage of society that developed children into adults, need to keep children protected for longer. Girls were assumed to have reached maturity at 12 and boys at 14 (they would start an apprenticeship) they could now get married but were still not seen as adults. As apprenticeship declined, education and youth organizations th began to define the boundaries of childhood, in the 9 century organizations like the boy scouts helped define the ‘proper’ boundaries of youth. Youth culture th th .young people have always had their own culture which can act as a motive for criminality, 16 and 17 centuries apprentices formed their own cultures apart from their families, they were apart of a new household but were not full members of it. The clothes and activities of early modern adolescents were policed. Expansion of urban leisure in the 18 century created new spaces for the young in the public world focused on social skills, parents especially the upper class were expected to bring their kids to the public sphere to socialize creating a divergence from the ideal of childhood and the reality because rousseau wanted to keep these children out of the sphere because of innocence but the reality was that th people wanted to teach their kids civility and manners in real world examples. 18 century people were uneasy with the emergence of children and young people into the world of public life. This shifted in the th 19 century as children and adolescents began being confined to their homes and in school. Juvenile Offenders .first period went from 1780s-1820s, target was class to fix the problem. The second period focused on adolescents as a whole that was the problem of delinquency but delinquency wasn’t actually increasing it just appeared to be so it was an increase in anxiety related to delinquency. .1780s-1820s period was there from social anxieties because of prison reform, attitudes to childhood, urge to discipline the poor, concerns about crime waves following the Gordon riots, greater attention paid to strategies like transportation and imprisonment. Prosecutions rose from the crackdown which related to an increase of anxieties because it seemingly got bigger. Large number of young people by the late 18 century (higher birth rate and improvements in public health). By 1820 39% of british th population was composed of children under age 14 up from 29% in 1670. Early 19 century view of criminals shifted from reform. .Central government argues something must be done about the crime. In 1815 society for investigating the causes of the alarming increase of juvenile delinquency in the metropolis is formed. Blame is placed on the justice system for creating delinquents. 1820s selected committee of criminal commitments and convictions (!827-1828) and the selected committee on the police of the metropolis (1828) pinpointed factors like the low price of alcohol, lack of employment, parental neglect and out
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