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Lecture 1

HTM 4050 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Malolactic Fermentation, Stainless Steel, Sulfur Dioxide

Hospitality and Tourism Management
Course Code
HTM 4050
Melissa Pulvermacher

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Lecture 1 Vinification
- Sorting tables, by hand to pick out matter that is unwanted
- Materials other than grapes leaves, stems, pests
- Freshly pressed juice (grape juice) that contains skins, seeds and stems of the fruit
- Maceration is the winemaking process where the phenolic materials of the grape
tannings, colouring agents and flavour compounds are leached from the grape skins,
seeds and stems into the must
- Sugar + yeast = Alcohol and CO2 (and heat)
- Wine yeasts are anaerobic (without ocygen) & wild yeasts that with air, can produce off
tastes, these are aerobic (need oxygen)
- Cultivated yeasts are selected by the winemaker depending on the need, ex. yeast used
for champagne needs to live and operate under pressure
- Yeasts naturally die around 15% alcohol
- Sulphur dioxide is almost indispensable in the winery, acts as antioxidant and antiseptic
- Now a widespread practice to kill off the wild yeasts and bacteria present on the grape
with SO2 before fermentation starts to avoid the off-flavours they could cause
- Sulphur dioxide is also useful after fermentation; bulk wines will have SO2 added to
avoid oxidation and to kill any bacteria or yeast present which could cause spoilage
White Wine Production
1. De-stemming/crushing
2. Pressing (must)
3. Juice clarification (racking means to leave sediment behind)
4. Primary fermentation; stainless steel or oak, cool tempt 12-18 degrees, inoculated yeast
at this point;sometimes winemaker will apply secondary fermentation called malolactic
5. Ageing. Barrels and/or stainless steel
6. Fining/clarification to rid of solids and lees
7. Filtering; cellulose fibre pads remove the tiny particles if needed
8. Bottle/ship
- Gentle bladder (pneumatic) presses used so as not to break the pit and impart bitter oils
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