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Lecture 1

HTM 4050 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Malolactic Fermentation, Stainless Steel, Sulfur Dioxide


Department
Hospitality and Tourism Management
Course Code
HTM 4050
Professor
Melissa Pulvermacher
Lecture
1

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Lecture 1 Vinification
Sorting
- Sorting tables, by hand to pick out matter that is unwanted
- Materials other than grapes leaves, stems, pests
Must
- Freshly pressed juice (grape juice) that contains skins, seeds and stems of the fruit
- Maceration is the winemaking process where the phenolic materials of the grape
tannings, colouring agents and flavour compounds are leached from the grape skins,
seeds and stems into the must
Fermentation
- Sugar + yeast = Alcohol and CO2 (and heat)
- Wine yeasts are anaerobic (without ocygen) & wild yeasts that with air, can produce off
tastes, these are aerobic (need oxygen)
- Cultivated yeasts are selected by the winemaker depending on the need, ex. yeast used
for champagne needs to live and operate under pressure
- Yeasts naturally die around 15% alcohol
Sulphur
- Sulphur dioxide is almost indispensable in the winery, acts as antioxidant and antiseptic
- Now a widespread practice to kill off the wild yeasts and bacteria present on the grape
with SO2 before fermentation starts to avoid the off-flavours they could cause
- Sulphur dioxide is also useful after fermentation; bulk wines will have SO2 added to
avoid oxidation and to kill any bacteria or yeast present which could cause spoilage
White Wine Production
1. De-stemming/crushing
2. Pressing (must)
3. Juice clarification (racking means to leave sediment behind)
4. Primary fermentation; stainless steel or oak, cool tempt 12-18 degrees, inoculated yeast
at this point;sometimes winemaker will apply secondary fermentation called malolactic
fermentation
5. Ageing. Barrels and/or stainless steel
6. Fining/clarification to rid of solids and lees
7. Filtering; cellulose fibre pads remove the tiny particles if needed
8. Bottle/ship
Pressing
- Gentle bladder (pneumatic) presses used so as not to break the pit and impart bitter oils
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