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HK 2810 (29)

2. CNS

24 Pages

Human Kinetics
Course Code
HK 2810
Coral Murrant

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General flow of information –C NS–binnsialrd Sensors Sensors Effectors -internal environment Sensors -xenlniom nt Effectors and where you are in it 2. Principles of comunication - 1 CNS General concepts the CNS is built on: 1. Changes in conductance and current flow 2. Fundamental unit is theAction Potential 3.All neurons are not created equal. 4. Graded potentials 5. Spontaneous depolarizers. 6. Directionality. 7. Synapse 2. Principles of comunication - 2 CNS Built from 2 cell types: A) neurons B. glial cells B) Glial Cells: non-neuronal cells of the CNS -oligodendrocytes (Schwann cells of the CNS), astrocytes, microglial cells, satellite cells 1. Support structure for the brain 2. Oligodendrocytes 3. Control neural environment 4. Phagocytic 5. Critical role in the blood brain barrier 2. Principles of comunication - 3 CNS Organization of nerves optimized forA) segregation and B) integration 2. Principles of comunication - 4 CNS Parietal Primary motor cortex Lobe Primary somatic sensory cortex Visual association Frontal 19 area Lobe 18 Occipital 17 Lobe Primary auditory Primary area Temporal visual area Lobe Eye Optic nerve LGN of thalamus Superior Colliculus Primary visual area 2. Principles of comunication - 5 CNS Functional organization within the system - retina Lens Retina Optic nerve 2. Principles of comunication - 6 CNS R - photoreceptor B - bipolar cell H - horizontal cell I - interplexiform cell A - amacrine cell G - ganglion cell 2. Principles of comunication - 7 CNS UNSTIMULATED STIMULATED (dark) (light) Photon GC rhodopsin - absorbs light GTP cGMP transducin (g protein) cGMP dep. Na+ Na+ channels cGMP phosphodiesterase open Na+ cGMP 5’GMP 3Na+ 2K+ ▯ cGMP ▯ Na+ channels open depolarization (-40mV) hyperpolarisation neurotransmitter ▯ neutotransmitter release (glutamate) release (glutamate) Bipolar Cell Bipolar Cell A. “off” bipolar cell A.“off” bipolar cell depol. to glutamate hyperpol. to ▯ glutamate B. “on” bipolar cell B. “on” bipolar cell hyperpol. to glutamate depol. to ▯ glutamate 2. Principles of comunication - 8 CNS Wiring of system Ganglion cells – 3 types P – 55% - intermediate conducting (speed) -noegdngwvenghunonnsy M - 5% - fast conducting -frgrngnnsyowavegh W – 40% - slow conducting noegrngnntnowaeegh 2. Principles of comunication - 9 CNS Ganglion cells receptive fields On centre - off surround Off centre - on surround - - + - + + - + - + + - - + Stimulus Action potential frequency spot of light on centre stim stim on off spot of light in periphery illuminate whole centre illuminate whole outside ring illuminate whole receptive field 2. Principles of comunication - 10 CNS LGN receptive fields: similar circle surround receptive fields Primary visual cortex: Simple cells – simple receptive field Complex cells – complex receptive field Hypercomplex cells – hypercomplex receptive fields i) Simple cells receptive field: ii) complex cells receptive field: 2. Principles of comunication - 11 CNS iii) Hypercomplex receptive field. 2. Principles of comunication - 12 CNS Negative feedback system LGN-M Layer 4C▯ Layer 2+3 Layer 5 Layer 6 LGN-P Layer 4C▯ Secondary Secondary visual visual Superior area 18 Colliculus area 18
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