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HK 2810 (29)

3. Hormones

31 Pages

Human Kinetics
Course Code
HK 2810
Coral Murrant

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Hormones may be: 1. Peptides -N LS -gowhhomonnsiailarcppde -sodnsceryecesooeese - requires plasma membrane receptor on target tissue 2. Metabolites of amino acids (amines) -m syNLS -EpidNE,opm esonnhyodom neLS) -N Lsoensceryecepooeese -N L-rqueam amm bneeetrnagtse LS - cytosolic or nuclear receptor on target tissue 3. metabolites of cholesterol - steriod hormones -LS -cos,doeonadognssognpoeton, testosterone) -podceanresdwhenedd -cysocrulaecpos 3. Communication - 1 hormones General characteristics: 1. 1/2 life in blood 2. carrier proteins a) hormones circulate bound to a carrier or free -nyrehrmonsaaaloneatwhagt b) provides reservoir c) extends 1/2 life 3. Target tissue receptors required -#feeprnoonant -onanunoer -downregulated or upregulated 4. Permissive - hormoneAmust be present to get full effect of hormone B. 3. Communication - 2 hormones Control of secretion: 1. Feedback - negative -pove - Hypothalamus - hormone 1 secretion - hormone 1 in blood - Anterior pituitary hormone 2 secretion hormone 2 in blood Endocrine gland hormone 3 secretion hormone 3 in blood target cells change cell function 3. Communication - 3 hormones 2. cyclic secretion - oscillating, pulsatile cycles following circadian rhythms -dysepwaeghdr,aonlemp, tides, variations on length of day light), developmental cycles (puberty). light sleep-wake cycle LGN eyes suprachiasmatic nucleus Intrinsic (hypothalamus) circadian clock 24-25 hour cycle coordinated rhythms endocrine metabolic behavioral secretion processes activity 3. Communication - 4 hormones 3. neuronal - increase or decrease secretion in response to internal or external stimuli. B&Lpg883,893 3. Communication - 5 hormones 3. Communication - 6 hormones ++ Ca regulation Interstitial space Extracellular fluid gut [Ca ]plasma bone kidney 3. Communication - 7 hormones Calcium regulation [Ca++]plasma PTH - Bone Kidney Bone reabsorption 1,25-(OH) 2D Ca++ Pi excretion excretion Ca++ Pi Small intestine release release from bone from bone Ca++ absorption Pi absorption 3. Communication - 8 hormones 7-dehydrocholesterol Diet Sunlight (UV light 290-315 nm) [Vitamin D] plasma Vitamin D liver - 25-OH-D [25-OH-D] plasma 25-OH-D kidney PTH + 1-▯ -hydroxylase - 1,25-(OH) 2D 24,25-(OH) 2D [1,25-(OH) -D] plasma [24,25-(OH) -D] plasma 2 2 Intestinal epithelium bone Ca++ absorption Pi absorption [Ca++] plasma [Pi] plasma 3. Communication - 9 hormones Phosphate regulation [Pi]pl 1,25-(OH) 2D Kidney Ca++ excretion intestinal absoption bone reabsorption [Pi]pl [Ca ]pl PTH Bone Kidney Ca++ Pi Ca++ Pi excretion release release excretion from bone from bone [Pi]pl 3. Communication - 10 hormones ++ Ca Regulation Calcitonin - peptide, 1 half life<10 mins -Releasedfroparafollicualrcells (c cells) of the thyroid gland -Stulusforreleaseis ▯[Ca++] in plasma - Target cell – osteoclast ▯[Ca++] in plasma ▯▯ calcitonin ▯▯ osteoclast activity ▯ ▯▯ bone reabsorption ▯▯ bone formation ▯▯ [Ca++] in plasma 3. Communication - 11 hormones Pancreas - regulation of blood glucose Free fatty acids glucagon glycerol Adipose Liver Input insulin insulin Gut glucagon filtered Blood [glucose] Kidney reabsorbed insulin Output Body Tissues Skeletal muscle 3. Communication - 12 hormones glycogen glycogen synthase glycogen phosphorylase glucose-1-phosphate glucose-6-phosphate glucose fructose-6-phosphate fructose-1-6- phosphofructokinase biphosphatase fructose-1-6-biphosphate phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase phosphoenolpyruvate pyruvate kinase pyruvate pyruvate dehydrogenase mitochondria pyruvate Acetyl CoA carboxylase lactate oxaloaetate
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