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HK 2810 (29)
Lecture

5. Blood Flow

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Department
Human Kinetics
Course
HK 2810
Professor
Coral Murrant
Semester
Fall

Description
Negative feedback regulation OVERRIDE COORDINATING CENTRE SENSOR EFFECTOR negative feedback 5. Regulation of blood flow - 1 Heart and Vasculature exchange 9% resistance transport storage Pump 7% Pump storage transport 64% 13% resistance exchange 7% 5. Heart and Vasculaturelow - 2 Silverthorn pg 413 5. Regulation of blood flow - 3 Heart and Vasculature Conduction Tissue Velocity (m/s) SAnode 0.05 Artial pathways 1.0 AV node 0.05 Bundle of HIS 1.0 Purkinje system 4.0 Ventricular muscle 1.0 5. Heart and Vasculaturelow - 4 Vm (mV) 5. Regulation of blood flow - 5 Heart and Vasculature Silverthorn page 486 5. Regulation of blood flow - 6 Heart and Vasculature Vm (mV) 5. Regulation of blood flow - 7 Heart and Vasculature Berne and Levy p. 302 5. Regulation of blood flow - 8 Heart and Vasculature Silverthorn p.494 5. Regulation of blood flow - 9 Heart and Vasculature 5. Regulation of blood flow - 10 Heart and Vasculature Aortic EDV ESV 5. Regulation of blood flow - 11 Heart and Vasculature Berne and Levy p. 326. Mitral valve Mitral Atrial contraction closes valve opens 5. Regulation of blood flow - 12 Heart and Vasculature 2. ESV i) intrinsic regulation 80 130 Silverthorn p. 501 Berne and Levy p. 264 5. Regulation of blood flow - 13 Heart and Vasculature ii) nervous innervation (extrinsic) -deinraoncricmycys. cardiac SNS NE myocytes ▯-adrenergic Rm Gs AC cAMP protein kinases phosphorylation of: 1. volt. dep. Ca+channels (L-type) # channels that open perAP trigger Ca++…… contractility 2. Ca pumps on SR activity relaxation time speed of contraction 5.Heart and Vasculatureflow - 14 PNS ACh cardiac muscarinic Gi myocytes cholinergic Rm AC cAMP protein kinases phosphorylation of: ++ 1. volt. dep. Ca channels (L-type) ++ 2. Ca pumps on SR iii) hormonal control SNS adrenal EPI/NE cardiac ▯-adrenergic glands myocytes Rm iv) paracrine –e doealsneehat v) afterload 5. Regulation of blood flow - 15 Heart and Vasculature 3. HR i) neural control PNS ACh SAnode K+permeability hyperpol. (AV node) spontaneous depol. rate HR + SNS NE SAnode Na “leak” rate (AV node) time to threshhold spontaneous depol. rate HR ii) hormonal control SNS adrenal glands EPI/NE SAnode (AV node) 5. Regulation of blood flow - 16 Heart and Vasculature Where is CO going? (left ventrical CO) Q (flow) % CO ml/min/100g tissue) Heart 4 70 Brain 14 84 Liver 28 96 Kidney 20 308 Skeletal 21 4 muscle skin 8 8 5. Regulation of blood flow - 17 Heart and Vasculature Endothelial cells Basement membrane Intima Elastin Connective Tissue Smooth Muscle Cells Neurons Media Neurons Adventitia Macrophages From “Basic Histology 8th ED Junqueria, Carneiro, Kelley, pg 213 5. Regulation of blood flow - 18 Heart and Vasculature Summary of the dimensions and composition of different levels of the vasculature Composition Aorta artery arteriole capillary venule veins vena cava endothelial cells yes yes yes yes yes yes yes elastic 4 4 3 - - 3 3 tissue smooth 2 4 4 - - 2 2 muscle fibrous 3 2 2 - 1 2 4 tissue Endothelial cells line all vessels of vascular system and chambers of the heart. 1 = a little, 4 = alot Dimensions Aorta artery arteriole capillary venule veins vena cava # 1 40 to 2.8x10 6 2.7x109 1x10 7 660,000 2 110,000 to 110 radius 12.5mm 2mm 15▯m 4▯m 10▯m 2.5mm 15mm wall 2mm 1mm 6▯m 0.5▯m 1▯m 0.5mm 1.5mm thickness w/r 0.16 0.5 0.4 0.13 0.1 0.2 0.1 5. Regulation of blood flow - 19 Heart and Vasculature 120 100 80 60 40 Pressure (mmHg) 20 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 04 0 0 03 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 Volume (ml) 5. Regulation of blood flow - Heart and Vasculature 1.Aortic/arterial compartment 0 0.8 Time (sec) 5. Regulation of blood flow - 21 Heart and Vasculature Electron micrograph of an arteriole in cross-section (inner diameter 40µm) from cat ventricle. B&L page 442 5. Regulation of blood flow - 22 Heart and Vasculature Regulation of arteriolar radius Blood flow Flow BK EPI Shear Rm Rm Rm Endothelial cell INTIMA NO EDCF Endothelin EDHF PGI2 EDRF NO Rm Rm Rm Rm NO cGMP cGMP MEDIA Vascular smooth muscle Rm Rm Rm Rm Histamine, 5HTE NO ACh NO ADO CO2 K + ADVENTITIA Mast cells Tissue Metabolism SNS VC SNS VDil Other 5. Regulation of blood flow - 23 Heart and Vasculature Capillaries 1. Site for exchange of substrates and metabolites. 2. Important for cell survival – each cell of the body is approx. 20um from a capillary. 3. Important for adjusting blood volume in the short term. 1. Exchange of substrates and metabolites mostly by diffusion A. LS can diffuse directly through endothelial cell membranes. B. NLS (ions, glucose, water, etc.) can pass through spaces between the cells – cleft pores. 3. Adjusting blood volume. What determines fluid movement? i) CFC –c apaylaonoecet -dsresudpm ebtyhrcetsocpaybe.
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