HROB 2090 Lecture 9: Chapter 9 – Continued
Premium

10 Pages
74 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Human Resources and Organizational Behaviour
Course
HROB 2090
Professor
sina
Semester
Winter

Description
1. Chapter 9 – Continued Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory • A theory of leadership that focuses on the relationship that develops between a leader and an employee. • It is a social exchange relationship-based approach to leadership. • Effective leadership processes result when leaders and employees develop and maintain high-quality social exchange relationships. • The basis for the effects of LMX is social exchange theory and the norm of reciprocity. Social Exchange Theory • Individuals who are treated favourably by others feel obliged to reciprocate by responding positively and returning that favourable treatment in some manner. • Employees in a high-quality relationship with their supervisor will reciprocate with extra effort and higher commitment and performance. Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory (continued) • High LMX involves a high degree of mutual influence and obligation as well as trust, loyalty, open communication, and respect between a leader and an employee. • In high-quality relationships, employees perform tasks beyond their job descriptions. • Low LMX is characterized by low trust, respect, obligation, and mutual support. • In low-quality relationships, the leader provides less attention and latitude to employees. • Employees do only what their job descriptions and formal role requirements demand. Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory: Research Evidence  Employees with higher quality LMX have higher self-efficacy, more positive work attitudes, and higher OCB and job performance.  Higher-quality LMX relationships result in positive outcomes for leaders, employees, work units, and organizations. Transactional Leadership • Transactional leadership is leadership that is based on a straightforward exchange relationship between a leader and followers. • Transactional leadership behaviour involves: – Contingent reward behaviour (leader reward behaviour) – Management by exception Management By Exception • Leadership that involves the leader taking corrective action on the basis of the results of leader-follower transactions. • The leader monitors follower behaviour, anticipates problems, and takes corrective actions before the behaviour creates serious problems. Transformational Leadership • Transformational leadership is leadership that provides followers with a new vision that instills true commitment. • Transformational leaders change the beliefs and attitudes of followers to correspond with a new vision and motivates them to achieve performance beyond expectations. • Popular examples of transformational leaders: Herb Kelleher, Michael Eisner, Steven Jobs, and Carly Fiorina. • Transformational leaders are usually good at the transactional aspects of clarifying the paths to goals and rewarding good performance. • What are the behaviours of these transformational leaders who encourage considerable effort and dedication on the part of followers? Behaviours of Transformational Leadership • There are four key dimensions of transformational leader behavour: – Intellectual stimulation – Individualized consideration – Inspirational motivation – Charisma Intellectual Stimulation • People are stimulated to think about problems, issues, and strategies in new ways. • This contributes to the “new vision” aspect of transformational leadership. • The leader challenges assumptions, takes risks, and solicits followers’ ideas. • It often involves creativity and novelty Individualized Consideration • This involves treating employees as distinct individuals, indicating concern for their needs and personal development, and serving as a mentor or coach when appropriate. • The emphasis is a one-on-one attempt to meet the concerns and needs of the individual in question in the context of the overall goal or mission. Inspirational Motivation • This involves the communication of visions that are appealing and inspiring to followers. • Leaders with inspirational motivation have a strong vision for the future based on values and ideals. • They stimulate enthusiasm, challenge followers with high standards, communicate optimism about future goal attainment, and provide meaning for the task at hand. • They inspire followers using symbolic actions and persuasion. Charisma • The ability to command strong loyalty and devotion from followers and thus have the potential for strong influence among them. • This is the most important aspect of transformational leadership. • Charisma provides the emotional aspect of transformational leadership. • The emergence of charisma is a complex function of traits, behaviours, and being in the right place at the right time. New and Emerging Theories of Leadership • Leadership research has begun to focus on the broader context of the leadership process. • This has led to the emergence of new forms of leadership behaviours and theories: – Empowering leadership – Ethical leadership – Authentic leadership – Servant leadership Empowering Leadership • Empowering leadership involves implementing conditions that enable power to be shared with employees. • Empowering leaders provide participation and autonomy in decision making. • Employees experience a state of psychological empowerment that consists of feelings of meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact. • Empowering leadership provides employees with a greater feeling of control over their work and a sense that they can make a difference in their organization’s effectiveness. • Empowering leadership has been found to be positively related to job performance and creativity-re
More Less

Related notes for HROB 2090

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit