HROB 2090 Lecture 15: HROB – Chapter 15

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University of Guelph
Human Resources and Organizational Behaviour
HROB 2090

1. HROB – Chapter 15: Organizational Change, Development and Innovation Forces for Change • Workforce • Technology • Economic Shocks • Competition • Social Trends • World Politics Lewin’s 3 Step Change Model • Kurt Lewin suggested that this sequence or process involves three basic stages: – Unfreezing – Changing – Refreezing Unfreezing • Unfreezing refers to the recognition that some current state of affairs is unsatisfactory. • Crises are especially likely to stimulate unfreezing. • Unfreezing can also occur without crises. • Employee attitude surveys, customer surveys, and accounting data are often used to anticipate problems and initiate change before crises are reached. Change • Change refers to the implementation of a program or plan to move the organization or its members to a more satisfactory state. • Change efforts can range from minor (e.g., skills training program) to major (e.g., job enrichment). • In order for change to occur, people must have the capability and the opportunity and the motivation to change. Refreezing  Refreezing is the condition that exists when newly developed behaviours, attitudes, or structures become an enduring part of the organization.  The effectiveness of the change is examined and the desirability of extending change further can be considered.  Refreezing is a relative and temporary state of affairs. The Change Process and Change Problems Diagnosis • Diagnosis refers to the systematic collection of information relevant to impending organizational change. • Initial diagnosis can provide information that contributes to unfreezing by showing that a problem exists. • Diagnosis can also clarify the problem and suggest what changes should be implemented. • For complex, non-routine problems, change agents are often involved in the diagnosis and change process. • Change agents are experts in the application of behavioural science knowledge to organizational diagnosis and change. • Diagnostic information can be obtained from observations, interviews, questionnaires, and records. • Attention to the views of customers or clients is critical. • The intended targets of the change should be involved in the diagnostic process. • Proper diagnosis clarifies the problem and suggests what should be changed and the appropriate strategy for implementing change without resistance. • Many firms do not do a careful diagnosis and sometimes confuse symptoms with underlying problems. Resistance • Change is frequently resisted by those at whom it is targeted. • People may resist both unfreezing and change. • Defence mechanisms might be activated during the unfreezing stage. • Even if there is agreement that change is necessary, any specific plan
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