1. HROB – Chapter 15: Organizational Change,
Development and Innovation
Forces for Change
• Economic Shocks
• Social Trends
• World Politics
Lewin’s 3 Step Change Model
• Kurt Lewin suggested that this sequence or process involves three
• Unfreezing refers to the recognition that some current state of affairs
• Crises are especially likely to stimulate unfreezing.
• Unfreezing can also occur without crises.
• Employee attitude surveys, customer surveys, and accounting data are
often used to anticipate problems and initiate change before crises are
• Change refers to the implementation of a program or plan to move
the organization or its members to a more satisfactory state.
• Change efforts can range from minor (e.g., skills training program) to
major (e.g., job enrichment).
• In order for change to occur, people must have the capability and the
opportunity and the motivation to change.
Refreezing is the condition that exists when newly developed
behaviours, attitudes, or structures become an enduring part of the
The effectiveness of the change is examined and the desirability of
extending change further can be considered.
Refreezing is a relative and temporary state of affairs.
The Change Process and Change Problems
• Diagnosis refers to the systematic collection of information relevant to
impending organizational change.
• Initial diagnosis can provide information that contributes to unfreezing
by showing that a problem exists. • Diagnosis can also clarify the problem and suggest what changes
should be implemented.
• For complex, non-routine problems, change agents are often involved
in the diagnosis and change process.
• Change agents are experts in the application of behavioural science
knowledge to organizational diagnosis and change.
• Diagnostic information can be obtained from observations, interviews,
questionnaires, and records.
• Attention to the views of customers or clients is critical.
• The intended targets of the change should be involved in the
• Proper diagnosis clarifies the problem and suggests what should be
changed and the appropriate strategy for implementing change
• Many firms do not do a careful diagnosis and sometimes confuse
symptoms with underlying problems.
• Change is frequently resisted by those at whom it is targeted.
• People may resist both unfreezing and change.
• Defence mechanisms might be activated during the unfreezing stage.
• Even if there is agreement that change is necessary, any specific plan