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Human Resources and Organizational Behaviour
HROB 2100
Sara Mann

HROB*2100 Discussion Questions Section #1 : Perception and Attribution 1. What is the difference between internal and external attribution? Give and example of a behavior and how a manager decides to attribute that behavior to internal or external factors? Internal: Assigning behaviors or choices based on a persons personality (ex.lazy) External: Assigns behavior to a person based on external factors acting on them (death in the family) Examples: Consensus Cue: was everyone else late? Distinctiveness Cue: Do they behave like this in every situation or is it just this one situation? Consistency Cues: is the behavior regular? ie. Late for work? Regular Internal (LAZY) Irregular External (TRAFFIC) 2. Explain 3 Biases that can occur with attribution, give an example of each. Fundamental Attribution Error: Tendency to attribute an individuals behavior based on internal factors because of personality. Example: I assume you have not done much today because you are lazy, rather then perhaps tired or lack of resources. Self-Serving Bias: Failure=external; Success= Internal Actor Observer Bias (negative): Attribute ones own actions to external causes while attributing other peoples behaviors to internal. Example: You trip external ; they trip internal (clumsy) 3. Suppose an employee performs poorly on an assigned project. Discuss the attribution process that this persons manager will use to form judgments about this poor performance. The manager will first look at the attribution cues (see Q#1) through this they will be able to tell whether this poor performance was an internal: lazy, or an external: family member passes away. Through figuring out his they can decide how to not let it happen again. ... CONTINUED IN NOTES~! Legal 1. Assume you are a supervisor in your organization. How would the legislation that pertains to HRM affect how you do your job? (With regards to supervising employees) pg.6 The Human rights legislation is broad scope and can affect almost all aspects of HRM. Therefore, supervisors and managers must be familiar. The Human Rights Legislation prohibits discrimination against all Canadians in a number of areas. Employers are required to adjust employment policies and practices so that no individual is prevented from doing his or her job on the basis of prohibited grounds for discrimination. And they are expected to accommodate to the point of undue hardship: the financial cost of accommodating is impossible (easier for smaller companies to say). 2. Why is it important that their HRM practices have a high level of legal compliance? Compliance with equal employment opportunity (EEO) laws and reg. affects all other HR activities and in integral is HR management. For instance strategic HR plans must ensure sufficient availability of diversity of individuals to meet affirmative action requirements. 3. What is the difference the between the Canadian Human Rights Act and the Ontario Human Rights Code? Canadian Human Rights Act: The idea behind the Act is that people should not be placed at a disadvantage simply because of their age, sex, race or any other ground covered by the Act. That is discrimination and is against the law. The Human Rights Code (Commission): The Ontario Human Rights Code (the "Code") is for everyone. It is a provincial law that gives everybody equal rights and opportunities without discrimination in specific areas such as jobs, housing and services. The Code's goal is to prevent discrimination and harassment. 4. If you are an employee that works for Air Canada, under which human rights act would you be covered? You would be covered by CRTC Canadian Radio-Television Telecommunications Commission. Regulates all Canadian broadcasting and telecommunications activities and enforces rules it creates to carry out the policies assigned to it 5. Under which act would you be covered if you worked at Tim Hortons in Hamilton ON? You would be covered by the Code (seen in question 3) 7. The purpose of Human Rights Legislation? Is to ensure that people have the ability to live and work in Canada without being hindered by discrimination. It provides protection, procedures and remedies for people who have experienced discrimination. 8. What is the difference between intentional (direct) discrimination and systemic discrimination? Systemic (unintentional): Discrimination that in embedded in policies and practices that appear neutral on the surface and are implemented impartially but have and adverse impact on specific groups of people for reasons that are not job related (pg. 6) Intentional (direct): and employer cannot deliberately refuse to hire, train, or promote an individual. They are also prohibited from discrimination of unequal treatment, and by intentionally discriminating indirectly (through another party), cannot ask someone to discriminate on your behalf. Lastly, they cannot discriminate because of association, which involves the denial of rights because of a friendship etc. 9. Bona fide Occupational Requirement? A justifiable reason for discrimination based on business necessity or requirement that can be clearly defended as intrinsically required by the tasks an employee is expected to perform. Example: if you are hiring a police officer, they must go through a physical test which means if they are out of shape they are unable to be a cop. 10.Duty to Accommodate? You are required to accommodate to some point till the point of undue hardship: which means the financial amount of money is not there. ** its hard to a large company like sears to be able to pull an excuse like this off because they will always have enough money to accommodate. Example: You are a small business You have 3 applicants for a job and the top applicant is in a wheel chair. Your office is on the second floor of a building with
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