Section #1 : Perception and Attribution
1. What is the difference between internal and external attribution? Give and
example of a behavior and how a manager decides to attribute that
behavior to internal or external factors?
Internal: Assigning behaviors or choices based on a persons personality
External: Assigns behavior to a person based on external factors acting on
them (death in the family)
Consensus Cue: was everyone else late?
Distinctiveness Cue: Do they behave like this in every situation or is it just this
Consistency Cues: is the behavior regular? ie. Late for work?
Regular Internal (LAZY) Irregular External (TRAFFIC)
2. Explain 3 Biases that can occur with attribution, give an example of each.
Fundamental Attribution Error: Tendency to attribute an individuals behavior
based on internal factors because of personality.
Example: I assume you have not done much today because you are lazy, rather
then perhaps tired or lack of resources.
Self-Serving Bias: Failure=external; Success= Internal
Actor Observer Bias (negative): Attribute ones own actions to external causes
while attributing other peoples behaviors to internal.
Example: You trip external ; they trip internal (clumsy)
3. Suppose an employee performs poorly on an assigned project. Discuss
the attribution process that this persons manager will use to form
judgments about this poor performance.
The manager will first look at the attribution cues (see Q#1) through this they will
be able to tell whether this poor performance was an internal: lazy, or an
external: family member passes away. Through figuring out his they can decide
how to not let it happen again.
... CONTINUED IN NOTES~! Legal
1. Assume you are a supervisor in your organization. How would the
legislation that pertains to HRM affect how you do your job? (With regards
to supervising employees) pg.6
The Human rights legislation is broad scope and can affect almost all aspects
of HRM. Therefore, supervisors and managers must be familiar. The Human
Rights Legislation prohibits discrimination against all Canadians in a number
Employers are required to adjust employment policies and practices so that
no individual is prevented from doing his or her job on the basis of prohibited
grounds for discrimination.
And they are expected to accommodate to the point of undue hardship: the
financial cost of accommodating is impossible (easier for smaller companies
2. Why is it important that their HRM practices have a high level of legal
Compliance with equal employment opportunity (EEO) laws and reg. affects
all other HR activities and in integral is HR management. For instance
strategic HR plans must ensure sufficient availability of diversity of individuals
to meet affirmative action requirements.
3. What is the difference the between the Canadian Human Rights Act and
the Ontario Human Rights Code?
Canadian Human Rights Act: The idea behind the Act is that people should
not be placed at a disadvantage simply because of their age, sex, race or any
other ground covered by the Act. That is discrimination and is against the law.
The Human Rights Code (Commission): The Ontario Human Rights Code
(the "Code") is for everyone. It is a provincial law that gives everybody
equal rights and opportunities without discrimination in specific areas
such as jobs, housing and services. The Code's goal is to prevent
discrimination and harassment.
4. If you are an employee that works for Air Canada, under which
human rights act would you be covered?
You would be covered by CRTC Canadian Radio-Television
Telecommunications Commission. Regulates all Canadian broadcasting and telecommunications activities and enforces rules it creates to carry
out the policies assigned to it
5. Under which act would you be covered if you worked at Tim Hortons in
You would be covered by the Code (seen in question 3)
7. The purpose of Human Rights Legislation?
Is to ensure that people have the ability to live and work in Canada without
being hindered by discrimination. It provides protection, procedures and
remedies for people who have experienced discrimination.
8. What is the difference between intentional (direct) discrimination and
Systemic (unintentional): Discrimination that in embedded in policies and
practices that appear neutral on the surface and are implemented impartially but
have and adverse impact on specific groups of people for reasons that are not
job related (pg. 6)
Intentional (direct): and employer cannot deliberately refuse to hire, train, or
promote an individual.
They are also prohibited from discrimination of unequal treatment, and by
intentionally discriminating indirectly (through another party), cannot ask
someone to discriminate on your behalf.
Lastly, they cannot discriminate because of association, which involves the
denial of rights because of a friendship etc.
9. Bona fide Occupational Requirement?
A justifiable reason for discrimination based on business necessity or
requirement that can be clearly defended as intrinsically required by the tasks an
employee is expected to perform.
Example: if you are hiring a police officer, they must go through a physical test
which means if they are out of shape they are unable to be a cop.
10.Duty to Accommodate?
You are required to accommodate to some point till the point of undue hardship:
which means the financial amount of money is not there.
** its hard to a large company like sears to be able to pull an excuse like this off
because they will always have enough money to accommodate.
Example: You are a small business You have 3 applicants for a job and the top
applicant is in a wheel chair. Your office is on the second floor of a building with