Section 1, 5, 6, 7 Discussion Questions

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Department
Human Resources and Organizational Behaviour
Course
HROB 2100
Professor
Sara Mann
Semester
Fall

Description
Discussion Questions (Appendix B) Section One Perception and Attribution 1. Internal Attribution: we assign behaviours or motives to a person’s personality or intellect External Attribution: we assign behaviours or motives to some reason that is out of a person’s control Example; Rita is late for work Internal: She is not motivated enough to show up on time, her personality dictates the time she arrives External: She was late because of traffic; she slept in; flat tire - Use three Qs (number 3) to determine whether internal or external reasons 2. Three Biases that can occur with attribution Fundamental Attribution Error: When judging the behaviour of other people we tend to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal (personal) factors I am more likely to attribute your behaviour to internal attributions Self-Serving Bias: used when judging ourselves. We blame our failures on external factors and our successes on internal factors Actor-Observer Effect: Actor’s and observers are likely to view behaviour differently The difference between the fundamental attribution error and the self-serving bias Blame each other’s failures on each other. Manger blames internal (employee). And Employee blames external (manager) 3. If an employee performs poorly on an assigned project, the manager will use Distinctiveness, Consensus and Consistency Distinctiveness: Whether or not an individual acts similarly across a variety of situations. Do they always act in this way? Or is it just this one instance? Consensus: Considers how an individual’s behaviour compares with others in the same situation. Does everyone perform this way? Or is it only this one individual? Consistency: Whether or not this action has been repeated over time. Has this occurrence happened repeatedly before? Or is this just a one-time occurrence? 4. Give Dave a performance review a) Decide whether internal or external based on three Qs (question 3) b) Dave is more likely to use self-serving bias. More likely to attribute his behaviour to external factors. Internal (loss of motivation, difficulties with coworkers) External (family problems) c) Not doing well, is he satisfied? Satisfaction on the job and job performance are not strongly correlated d) Having a high Emotional Intelligence be more effective in this type of performance appraisal? Yes. They can perceive people’s emotions better and help them to manage those emotions better. They know how to handle the emotional situation e) What errors should you keep in mind when conducting performance appraisal? (Biases) - Privacy Error: first impression can bias opinion - Recency Effect: remembering the most recent event and opinion is biased - Implicit Personality Theory: (perceptual bias) a group of personalities that go together in your mind. It’s assumed that if you have one personality trait, you will have the rest from that group - Projection: Managers project their beliefs onto someone else. Need to ask them what they value - Similar to Me Bias: rate people better who are similar to you - Strictness Error: being too strict, not rating others good enough - Mum Effect: don’t like to deliver bad news/ reviews - Central Tendency Error: rate every mediocre (right down the middle). Don’t have to promote or discipline f) How to use learning theory to improve performance? Need to reinforce behaviour of employees. Tell them what they need to stop, start, and continue doing (rat theory) g) Social cognitive theory to improve performance? Two things: self-efficacy (different than self-esteem) task specific; your belief about whether or not you can do a specific task. Outcome expectancy; do I feel like I can do it; is there an outcome that matters to me? h) Anything in Dave’s personality to take into consideration? - Self esteem - Internal or external focus of control - Level of negative affectivity Personality 1. Yes give them a test. Legal as long as you can prove that individuals with a certain personality perform well on the job. 2. Ideal employee personality: high level of conscientiousness, It depends (type of job, type of organization, team or individuals, what are coworkers like.. etc) 3. Behaviours/ outcomes in the workplace is personality linked to? Job satisfaction, perception of fairness 4. – 5. Look at the composition of the team. Personality of each team member makes a difference 6. EQ same thing as IQ ? 7. People with different personalities are motivated differently Values, Attitudes and Behaviours 1. Values: stay the same. Transcend situations Attitudes: change according to job. Job specific 2. How do changes in the workplace affect an employee’s commitment? In the past you stay with your job a long time, stay loyal and they stay loyal to you. Now, you know you’re going to leave a job in the near future. Decreased continuance commitment (feeling like you’re stuck in job) 3. – 4. *** know by the end of term 5. – 6. Effective commitment ? (want to work for the company) Intro to HR 1. – 2. – Legal (read in text!) 1. – 2. You don’t want to get sued. You AND company are liable 3. Federal organization, or a private business that does a certain amount of business with the federal government fall under Canadian Human Rights Act (Federal). Ontario Human Rights Code (provincial) 4. – 5. – 6. – 7. Defend that you’re not discriminating 8. Intentional (direct): I’m not hiring this type of person because… Discremic Discrimintation: questions are culturally biased. Not intentionally discriminating 9. A bonafide occupational requirement: there’s a requirement for the job that you wouldn’t normally be able to (from a legal standpoint) be able to hire or select for. Would normally be considered discriminatory. But if the job requires you to hire based on that characteristic then it’s legal. Ex; police and firemen have to pass a physical 10. “Duty To Accommodate”: Orientation, Training and Development 1. Repetition – is the material repeated? Increases the likelihood that you will learn Participation – increases likelihood of learning Relevance – you think the material is relevant. Makes an impact on whether you will learn Transference – the setting that you learn the material in. Put the people together, that work together Feedback – no feedback means no motivation 2. *good Exam question* 3. Does a training program have to be legally defensible? Yes! How? By putting procedures in place that can be applied consistently to everyone 4. Measure the effectiveness of a training program? Pretest – Posttest design (test aptitude/attitudes/behaviours before and after training) 5. *good Exam question* How to develop training method? – 5 learning principles 7. Socialization: long term, informal Orientation: short term, formal 8. Always need to have some form of an orientation program (the level is dependent on the people you select) 9. Employee benefits: understand what you’re getting yourself into. Reduces anxiety, increases motivation, makes expectations more clearly Employer benefits: ensures everyone hears the same message in the same setting 10. *good Exam question* Se
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