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AHSS 1030 (1)

Organizational Behaviour - Chapter 4-5

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University of Guelph
AHSS 1030
Lynn Mc Auliffe

Organizational Behaviour: Chapter 4-5 Notes Chapter Four  Emotions: psychological, behavioural, and physiological episode that create a state of readiness.  Most emotions occur without our awareness.  Two features of all emotions:  All have some degree of activation  All have core affect – evaluate the something is good or bad Attitudes vs. Emotions: Attitudes Emotions Judgements about an Experience related to attitude object. an attitude object. Based mainly on Based on innate and rational logic. learned responses to environment. Usually stable for days Usually experienced for or longer. seconds or less. Traditional Model of Attitudes:  Purely cognitive approach  Beliefs: established perceptions of attitude object  Feelings: calculation of good or bad based on beliefs about the attitude object  Behavioural intentions: calculated motivation to act in response to the attitude object  Problem: Ignores important role of emotions in shaping attitudes. Emotions, Attitudes, and Behaviour:  How emotions influence attitudes: 1. Feelings and beliefs are influenced by cumulative emotional episodes. 2. We “listen in” on our emotions.  Potential conflict between cognitive and emotional processes.  Emotions also directly affect behaviour.  E.g. facial expression Generating Positive Emotions at Work:  Companies are aware of the dual cognitive-emotional attitude process.  They actively create more positive than negative episodes, which produces more positive work attitudes.  Cognitive Dissonance: a condition whereby we perceive an inconsistency between our beliefs, feelings, and behaviour.  This inconsistency generates emotions (e.g., feeling hypocritical) that motivate us to increase consistency.  Easier to increase consistency by changing feelings and beliefs, rather than change behaviour.  Emotional Labour: effort, planning and control needed to express organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions.  Higher in job requiring:  Frequent/Lengthy emotion display  Variety of emotions display  Intense emotions display Emotional Labour across Cultures:  Displaying or hiding emotions varies across cultures.  Minimal emotional expression and monotonic voice in Ethiopia, Japan, Austria.  Encourage emotional expression in Kuwait, Egypt, Spain and Russia. Emotional Dissonance:  Conflict between true and required emotions.  More stressful with surface acting.  Less stressful with deep acting. Emotional Intelligence:  Ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in oneself and others. Self (personal competence) Other (social competence) Recognition of Self-Awareness Awareness of others’ emotions emotions Regulation of emotions Self-Management Management of others’ emotions Job Satisfaction:  A person’s evaluation of his or her job and work context.  An appraisal of the perceived job characteristics, work environment, and emotional experience at work. EVLN: Responses to Dissatisfaction  Exit  Leaving the situation  Quitting, transferring  Voice  Changing the situation  Problem solving, complaining  Loyalty  Patiently waiting for the situation to improve  Neglect  Reducing work effort/quality  Increasing absenteeism Organizational Commitment  Affective Commitment:  Emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in an organization.  Continuance Commitment:  Calculative attachment – stay because too costly to quit. Building an Affective Commitment:  Justice/Support  Apply humanitarian values  Support employee wellbeing  Shared Values  Values congruence  Trust  Employees trust organization leaders  Job security supports trust  Organizational Comprehension  Know firm’s past/present/future  Open and rapid communication  Employee Involvement  Employees feel part of a company  Involvement demonstrates trust Stress:  Adaptive response to situation perceived as challenging or threatening to well-being  Prepares us to adapt to hostile or noxious environmental conditions  Eustress vs. distress Consequences of Distress:  Physiological: Cardiovascular disease, hypertension, headaches  Behavioural: Work performance, accidents, absenteeism, aggression, poor decisions  Psychological: Dissatisfaction, moodiness, depression, emotional fatigue. What are Stressors?  Stressors are the causes of stress, any environmental condition that places a physical or emotional demand on the person.  Some common workplace stressors include:  Harassment and incivility  Work overload  Working more hours, more intensely than one can cope.  Affected by globalization, consumerism, ideal worker norm  Low task control  Due to lack control over how and when tasks are performed.  Stress increases with responsibility. Psychological Harassment: Repeated and hostile or unwanted conduct, verbal comments, action or gesture, that affect an employee’s dignity or psychological or physical integrity and that result in a harmful work environment for the emp
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