Organizational Behaviour: Chapter 4-5 Notes
Emotions: psychological, behavioural, and physiological episode that create a state of readiness.
Most emotions occur without our awareness.
Two features of all emotions:
All have some degree of activation
All have core affect – evaluate the something is good or bad
Attitudes vs. Emotions:
Judgements about an Experience related to
attitude object. an attitude object.
Based mainly on Based on innate and
rational logic. learned responses to
Usually stable for days Usually experienced for
or longer. seconds or less.
Traditional Model of Attitudes:
Purely cognitive approach
Beliefs: established perceptions of attitude object
Feelings: calculation of good or bad based on beliefs about the attitude object
Behavioural intentions: calculated motivation to act in response to the attitude object
Problem: Ignores important role of emotions in shaping attitudes.
Emotions, Attitudes, and Behaviour:
How emotions influence attitudes:
1. Feelings and beliefs are influenced by cumulative emotional episodes.
2. We “listen in” on our emotions.
Potential conflict between cognitive and emotional processes.
Emotions also directly affect behaviour.
E.g. facial expression
Generating Positive Emotions at Work:
Companies are aware of the dual cognitive-emotional attitude process.
They actively create more positive than negative episodes, which produces more positive work
attitudes. Cognitive Dissonance: a condition whereby we perceive an inconsistency between our beliefs,
feelings, and behaviour.
This inconsistency generates emotions (e.g., feeling hypocritical) that motivate us to
Easier to increase consistency by changing feelings and beliefs, rather than change
Emotional Labour: effort, planning and control needed to express organizationally desired
emotions during interpersonal transactions.
Higher in job requiring:
Frequent/Lengthy emotion display
Variety of emotions display
Intense emotions display
Emotional Labour across Cultures:
Displaying or hiding emotions varies across cultures.
Minimal emotional expression and monotonic voice in Ethiopia, Japan, Austria.
Encourage emotional expression in Kuwait, Egypt, Spain and Russia.
Conflict between true and required emotions.
More stressful with surface acting.
Less stressful with deep acting.
Ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason
with emotion, and regulate emotion in oneself and others.
Self (personal competence) Other (social competence)
Recognition of Self-Awareness Awareness of others’ emotions
emotions Self-Management Management of others’ emotions Job Satisfaction:
A person’s evaluation of his or her job and work context.
An appraisal of the perceived job characteristics, work environment, and emotional experience
EVLN: Responses to Dissatisfaction
Leaving the situation
Changing the situation
Problem solving, complaining
Patiently waiting for the situation to improve
Reducing work effort/quality
Emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in an organization.
Calculative attachment – stay because too costly to quit.
Building an Affective Commitment:
Apply humanitarian values
Support employee wellbeing
Employees trust organization leaders
Job security supports trust
Know firm’s past/present/future
Open and rapid communication
Employees feel part of a company
Involvement demonstrates trust Stress:
Adaptive response to situation perceived as challenging or threatening to well-being
Prepares us to adapt to hostile or noxious environmental conditions
Eustress vs. distress
Consequences of Distress:
Physiological: Cardiovascular disease, hypertension, headaches
Behavioural: Work performance, accidents, absenteeism, aggression, poor decisions
Psychological: Dissatisfaction, moodiness, depression, emotional fatigue.
What are Stressors?
Stressors are the causes of stress, any environmental condition that places a physical or
emotional demand on the person.
Some common workplace stressors include:
Harassment and incivility
Working more hours, more intensely than one can cope.
Affected by globalization, consumerism, ideal worker norm
Low task control
Due to lack control over how and when tasks are performed.
Stress increases with responsibility.
Psychological Harassment: Repeated and hostile or unwanted conduct, verbal comments, action or
gesture, that affect an employee’s dignity or psychological or physical integrity and that result in a
harmful work environment for the emp