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Lecture 14

LING 1000 Lecture 14: Topic 3.3

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LING 1000
Rosario Gomez

LING*1000 Professor Gomez Topic 3.3: Syntactic Categories Morphological lexical categories include word as nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs These are open class words because we can keep adding to their inventory Function words or closed class words or functional categories are prepositions, determiners, pronouns, conjunctions, complentizers (if, whether, that), auxiliaries (have, do, be), and modals (will, would, shall, should, may, might) These lexical categories make up syntactic categories that function as units in sentences. Syntactic categories include noun phrases (NP), verb phrases (VP), adjective phrases (AP), adverbial phrases (AdvP), prepositional phrases (PP). Functional categories also are syntactic categories, in that they are units that belong in a sentence. Other syntactic categories include sentence (S), and the individual units like nouns (N), adjectives (Adj), adverbs (Adv), determiners (D), prepositions (P) and auxiliary verbs (Aux). NOUN PHRASES Contain a noun, and may be preceded by a determiner (the, a, this, that, those, my, your, his, her, some, etc.) They may be a proper noun like Joseph, Mary, or a pronoun (I, you, he, she, it, we, they). Notice the underlined units in the sentences below. NPs can be subjects or objects of the sentence, meaning that they could be the ones who do the action of the verbs, or are affected by the verb, and so can go before or after the verb, or anywhere else in the sentence. Examples: Alex walked the puppy He spoke to her My books are expensive His mom bought the shoes The shoes were bought by his mom
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