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Lecture 2

LING 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Dacha


Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LING 1000
Professor
Rosario Gomez
Lecture
2

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LINGUISTICS
Speech as a sign system
Hypothesis
Corpus (body of data - written/interview/media - evidence!)
Analysis (qual/quant)
Steps:
Start w/ intuition, then collect data --> get systematic study & observations!
Yes we have intuitions but we want a more systematic study!
Scientific, objective
When we speak to ourselves / family / from our heart / with lots of emotion
Aka When we don't think before talking!
What's the most natural/best sample of language?
We can come up with new sentences
We can talk about language!
Yes - other animals communicate - but we have creative aspect of language!
Attribute that distinguishes humans from other animals!
A system of sounds, meanings, and rules unconsciously learned by speakers
Language = ability to communicate! (innate!)
Identification of linguistic features (w/ hypothesis, corpus, analysis, conclusion, etc)
The linguist approach:
LANGUAGE
[r/R] --> Different languages pronounce "r"'s differently! (ex: French / Spanish / English) -->ALLOPHONES (different pronounciation but meaning is same! - ex:
vase / aunt / economics
[b/p] --> PHONIMES (changes meaning!) - ex: vine vs pine
System: relationships are important!
Inventory of sounds and how they react/relate to each other
Relationship b/w sounds
Sound system
Phonology
Just the inventory sounds (types of sounds, etc)
Phonetics
Pronunciation
Words, word formation
Morphology
Structures of sentences
Syntax
Grammar
Study of vocabulary
Lexicology
Study of meaning of words
Semantics
Vocabulary
Linguist = specialist of linguistics (don’t need to be multilingual to be linguist! :P)
Polyglot --> Greek for "many tongues" (noun)
Multilingual --> Latin for "many tongues" (adj)
Different roots:
What we know (mental language)
Competence
What we say (oral language)
Performance
We know lots more than what we apply! We choose what we say!
Knowledge:
Ex: you've (m)hissed my whole (h)mystery lesson and (w)tasted my whole (t)worm!
Switching up 1st letters/syllables
Spoonerisms!
Language at one particular time
Synchronic
Language across a period of time - evolutionary!
Diachronic
Evolution:
Observations of how we use language
Look at universal features, compare non-universal ones
Don't have "right"/"wrong" ways
Just observe changes
Explain language as it is :)
Descriptive
Prescriptive
Grammar Types
Some languages don't have certain sounds!
Tendency in languages = putting relating things together!
Replaces "say" / "thought" / etc
"Like" acts as a vocative!
Technically body language = first
All people speak, but not all can write!
Mainly oral!
Some languages (minor ones) don’t have a written
form yet!
Language happened orally first!
We know instinctively when language rules are violated!
NO! Not to linguists!
Criteria to say that doesn’t make sense!
Is one language "better" than another?
Yes - there are more efficient ones!
BUT - that's just one criteria! There are so many
more!
Are there more 'natural' languages?
Lecture 2 - Properties of Linguistics
October 21, 2015
4:39 PM
LING 1000 Page 1
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