MICR 2420 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Symbiosis, Protozoa, Gonorrhea

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Chapter 1: Microbial Life: Origin and Discover
Concept 1: Cells are fundamental units of life
All living things are made up of 1 or more cells
There are 3 domains of life
oEukarya, Bacteria, Archaea
There are 2 kingdoms of unicellular organisms
oBacteria, Archaea
There are 2 kingdoms of multicellular organisms
oPlants, animals (including fungi)
There is one kingdom that is made of both unicellular and multicellular organisms
oProtists (including algae)
Concept 2: Cell Function
Each living cell has the capacity to perform certain basic functions that are characteristic
of all living forms
A cell is able to live and perform all its functions because of its organelles
These organelles together constitute the basic unit of life: the cell
Eight Life Functions:
Respiration
Regulation
Reproduction
Excretion
Growth
Nutrition
Transport
Synthesis
Concept 3: Macromolecules are fundamental to all cells
Carbohydrates
-Building blocks: monosaccharides
Proteins
-Building blocks: amino acids
Nucleic acids
-Building blocks: nucleotides
Lipids
-Building blocks: glycerol, fatty acids
Concept 4: Origins of life on Earth
All life on Earth is made of stardust: the remnants of supernovae
The origin of life required fundamental elements that make up organic molecules
Life requires the continual input of energy, and a temperature range that permits liquid
water
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Earliest known forms of life were unicellular
Concept 5: Endosymbiosis
ER and nuclear envelope of eukaryotes may have evolved from infoldings of the plasma
membrane in a primordial cell
Mitochondria and chloroplasts are organelles that, at a critical point in evolution, were
engulfed by host cells and evolved to carry out specific functions for them
Mitochondria: produce energy from chemical components
Chloroplasts: produce energy from photons (light)
Robert Hooke (1635-1703)
Built the first compound microscope
~30x power
Observed (and drew) nematodes, mites and mold sporangia
Coined the term ‘cell’
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)
The son of a draper, he experimented with grinding ever-stronger magnifying lenses
oUp to 500x magnification
Became the first person to observe single-celled organisms
o“Animalcules”
Edward Jenner (1749- 1823)
Introduced ‘vaccination’ against smallpox
Smallpox was a dread disease:
okilled 20% of all who were infected, and 80% of children
oBlinded and scarred many other victims
o“Variolation” was practiced but carried great risks
Jenner developed vaccination with material from cowpox scabs, first testing it on an 8 yr
old boy, James Phipps
Jenner attempted to sicken poor Phipps with smallpox over 20 times subsequent to
vaccination!
Rahima Banu: last patient to have suffered a natural smallpox (Variola major) infection,
1975
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Vaccines
Sadly, public opposition is born out of irrational fear, and poor science
Vaccines continue to be the most effective method for prevention of disease
The Anti Vaccine Body Count
(Formerly the “Jenny McCarthy Body Count”)
“The United States Anti-Vaccination Movement is composed of a variety of individuals
ranging from former doctors who should know better, to semi-celebrities who have no
medical training, to anti-government conspiracy theorists who distrust anything that the
government says. They all hold onto the mistaken belief that autism is caused by
receiving childhood vaccines.”
Disproving ‘spontaneous generation’
Where did microscopic life come from?
oWhat are the ‘parents’ of microbes?
Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) was the first to show that broth sterilized (by boiling)
failed to grow microbes
oGood evidence against spontaneous generation, but did not quite silence the
critics…
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)
A chemist (discovered chirality of organic molecules)
Discovered fermentative metabolism (and was much celebrated by brewers as a result!)
Used swan-necked flasks to demonstrate that microbes are not produced through
spontaneous generation…
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Document Summary

Concept 1: cells are fundamental units of life. All living things are made up of 1 or more cells. There are 3 domains of life: eukarya, bacteria, archaea. There are 2 kingdoms of unicellular organisms: bacteria, archaea. There are 2 kingdoms of multicellular organisms: plants, animals (including fungi) There is one kingdom that is made of both unicellular and multicellular organisms: protists (including algae) Each living cell has the capacity to perform certain basic functions that are characteristic of all living forms. A cell is able to live and perform all its functions because of its organelles. These organelles together constitute the basic unit of life: the cell. Concept 3: macromolecules are fundamental to all cells: carbohydrates. All life on earth is made of stardust: the remnants of supernovae. The origin of life required fundamental elements that make up organic molecules. Life requires the continual input of energy, and a temperature range that permits liquid water.

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