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Lecture 10

MICR 2420 Lecture 10: Lecture 10_human microbiome

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MICR 2420
Lucy Mutharia

Lecture: Human Microbiome Lungs Are more resilient to stressors Once thought to be a sterile body site Now we know there is a rich community of microbes present Mainly anaerobes! Only very recently appreciated why? Microbiota in diseases such as COPD, cystic fibrosis and asthma seems to be distinct for each condition and different to that of a healthy lung For some conditions you dont know if the microbes cause the disease or the disease allows the microbes to be able to grow Asthma might be more related to the gut than it is to the lung, the immune response to certain microbes, if they child has too many antibiotics the body does not get used to as many microbes as it should causing it to be unable to fight off certain pathogens Urogenital Tract The kidneys and urinary bladder are normally sterile or near sterile The urethra contains S. epidermidis and some members of the Enterobacteriaceae Either can cause UTIs Composition of the vaginal microbiota changes with the menstrual cycle Acidic secretions favour Lactobacillus spp. More vaginal diversity is bad, low pH is needed Antibacterial therapy allows Candida albicans to proliferate potentially causing thrush (a scourge of many women) Cranberry juice prevents the e coli from sticking to the body Women have shorter urethras which is why they get it more When you take an antibiotic it diminishes the ability to fight the microbes Stomach Stomach has a very low pH Few microbes survive Helicobacter pylori Survives as pH 1 Burrows into protective mucus Can cause gastric ulcers Decreased stomach acidity hypochlorydia Caused by malnourishment Also now caused deliberately eg. Through PPI use Can lead to intestinal disease Stomach acid is a key defensive barrier Anyone that even has a little bit of the bacteria are given antibiotics People are trying to stop this since we think that only one strain causes ulcers May be harmful to get rid of all the bacteria, dont know about the consequences Intestine
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