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Lecture

Immunology Introduction.docx

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Department
Microbiology
Course
MICR 3230
Professor
Azad Kaushik
Semester
Fall

Description
Immunology: Introduction State of protection against foreign organisms/substances. Vertebrates have 2 types of immunity: innate and adaptive … Immunity Lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells cooperate in adaptive immunity Collaboration bw innate and adaptive immunity increases immune response Ab recognize and interact directly w/ Ag. T-cell receptors recognize only antigen combined w/ MHC molecules Dysfunctions of the immune system incl: allergies, asthma, immunodeficiency, autoimmunity Question What are the 4 major groups of pathogens? Conclusion - Viruses (polio, smallpox, influenza, measle, AIDS) - Bacteria (tuberculosis, tetanus, whooping cough) - Parasites (thrush, ringworm) - Fungi (malaria, leishmaniasis) Question Describe the evolution of immune system Conclusion - Invertebrate  Vertebrate - Originated from GALT in Lamprey - GALT  Thymus  Spleen  Bone marrow  Lymph nodes  Germinal centers Question What is innate immunity? Describe Conclusion - Innate immunity constitutes a 1 line of defense, which includes barriers, phagocytic cells, and molecules that recognizes certain classes of pathogens - Steps involved in inflammation: 1) Vasodilation 2) Exudation via increased capillary permeability 3) Phagocyte influx 4) Tissue damage by chemical mediators Question What is adaptive/acquired immunity? Describe Conclusion - Adaptive/Acquired immunity is highly specific. - Has 4 characterisitics: 1) Antigenic specificity 2) Diversity 3) Immunologic memory 4) Self-nonself recognition Question What were the 3 theories of immunity? Conclusion 1) Selective theory – Ehrlich suggested that interaction bw an infectious agent was like the fit bw a lock and key. Interaction bw a ninfectious agent and a cell-bound receptor would induce the cell to produce and release more receptors w/ the same specificity. The specificity of the receptor was determined in the host before its exposure to antigen, and the antigen selected the appropriate receptor. Correction was made as “receptor” exists as both a soluble antibody and a cell-bound receptor; the soluble form is secreted rather than the bound form released 2) Instructional theory – Antigen played a central role in determining the sp of the antibody. Antibody would assume a configuration complementary to that of the antigen. Wrong!! 3) *Clonal-selection theory – Expanded on Selective theory. A lymph
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