MBG lecture 1 notes.docx

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Molecular Biology and Genetics
MBG 1000
Georgevander Merwe

MBG chapter 2 – Cells Cells are the basic unit of life - Single cell/multi-cell organisms - Mutations affect whether the cell functions normally - Mutation = errors in DNA Muscle cells - Mutation in X-linked gene causes diseased muscle cells Muscular dystrophy - Type 1 o AR Types of cells - Prokaryotic o No nucleus - Eukaryotic o Has nucleus o Other complex organelles o Humans are eukaryotes Human Cells - > 260 cell types - 4 main categories o Epithelial  Skin cells  Open to outside ducts (lungs, stoumach) o Muscle o Nerve  Carry electrical impulses o Connective  Tendons  Ligaments  Bones  Cartilage  Blood and blood elements Macromolecules in cells - Carbs o Sugars, starches o Energy source - Lipids o Fats, oils o Membranes - Proteins o Actin, collagen o Structures, enzymes - Nucleic acid o DNA, RNA o Genetic material Mutations affect the major macromolecules -> = mutation Animal Cells - Surrounded by plasma membrane - Contains nucleus, cytoplasm, and other organelles The Nucleus - Surrounded by nuclear envelope o Made of inner and outter membrane - Contains nuclear pores o Allows for s
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