Definitions.docx

4 Pages
78 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Course
MBG 1000
Professor
Georgevander Merwe
Semester
Winter

Description
Definitions Mitosis = division of somatic cells Somatic cells = (non-sex cells) Apoptosis = form of cell death that is normal part of cell growth and development Necrosis = cell death due to disease or injury Cytokinesis = division of the cytoplasm and its contents Keryotype = size –order chromosome chart Heterochromatin = darkly staining, no active genes Euchromatin = contains active genes (proteins) Telomeres = chromosome tips Centromeres = where spindle fibres attach (constriction of the chromosome) Telocentric = centromere close to tip Acrocentric = centromere close to end Metacentric = centromere at midpoint Submetacentric = centromere displaced from center Q = long arm P = short arm Obtain tissue from person Fetal tissue - Amniocentesis = examines cells in fetal tissue by extracting amniotic fluid - Chronic villi sampling = cells of the chorion - Fetal cell sorting Adult tissue - Blood - Cheek swab - Skin cells - Tissue biopsy Normal karyotype - Human somatic cels contain 46 chromosomes - 23 diploid chromosomes - Paired 1-22 - 2 sex chromosomes - Diploid = two sets of each chromosome 2n - Haploid gametes – one set of each chromosome n Gamete = sex cell Zygote = prenatal human from the fertalized ovum stage until formation of embryo Ovary = female gonad Testis = male gonad Meiosis = cell division that halves the number of chromosomes to form haploid gametes Spermatogenesis = sperm cell differentiation Oogenesis = oocyte development Haploid = cell with one set of chromosomes Development = process of forming adult from single celled zygote Evolution = genetic change in population over time Blastocyst = hollow ball of cells descended from a fertalized ovum Gastrula = three layered embryo Dizygotic = twins that originated as two fertalized ovum (fraternal twins) Monozygotic = twins that originated as a single fertalized ovum (identical twins) Teratogen = substance that causes a birthd effect Results of meiosis - 4 haploid cells - Each cell is unique Pleiotropic = single gene disorder with several symptoms. Different sympotoms in different individuals Spontaneous abortion = spontaneous end of a pregnancy Still birth = baby dies in uterus Gastrulation - Primary germ layers form - Cells differentiate - Supporting structures form - 10 weeks = placenta fully formed Germ layers - Endoderm - Mesoderm - Ectoderm Euploid = somatic cell with normal number of chromosomes for the species Triploid = 3 homologous sets of chromosome Aneuploid = a cell with one or more extra or missing chromosomes Trisomy = presense of an extra chromosome Monosomy = missing a chromosome Duplication = an extra copy of a DNA sequence usually caused by misaligning pairings in meiosis Deletion = a missing sequence of DNA or part of a chromosome Translocation = exchange between non-homologous chromosomes Translocation carrier = individual with exchanged chromosomes but no signs or symptoms. Usual amount of genetic material but it is exchanged. Paracentric inversion = inverted chromosome that does not include the centromere Paricentric inversion = inverted chromosome but uncludes centromere Inversion carrier = X-inactivation = the inactivation of one x chromosome in each cell of a female mammal, occurs early in embryotic development Homozygous = having two identical allels of a gene Herterozygous = having two different alelles of a gene Hemizygous = the sex that has half as many x linked genes as the other (the human male) Phenotype = the expression of a gene in traits of sympotoms. SRY gene - Encodes for a transcription factor protein - Controls the expression of other genes - Stimulates male development - Hormones testoste
More Less

Related notes for MBG 1000

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit