Genetics lecture 1&2

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Molecular Biology and Genetics
MBG 2040
Christine Schisler

1/12/2011 6:30:00 AM Natural variation exists among any species of plants or animals  Humans have selectively bred animals and plants to perpetuate desirable phenotypes o There are numerous true-breeding or purebred varieties/breeds of animals and plants o Grapes were cultivated by 4000 BC in the area around the Caspian Sea  Very recently we decided that grapes were good for eating as well as wine o In 5000 BC olives were cultivated in the Mediterranean Region  Very recently they were produced to be consumed instead of just for olive oils  Hundreds of apple varieties exist o E.g. Pomme Gris developed in 1803 o McIntosh variety discovered ~1811 in Dundas Country, Ontario o Only a small amount of varieties are commercially important o McIntosh 62%  Selective breeding of mustard species has produced economically important crops A specific phenotype is associated with a specific breed or variety  Canadian horse considered “at risk”-more than 6000  Newfoundland pony considered “critical”-less than 400  Swine breeds show a range of phenotypes  Lacombe pig-developed in 1950s by Agriculture Canada in Lacombe, Albert  Haitian Creole Pig was eradicated in the 1980s and American swine breeds were introduced o Pig had dark hair, roams free, disease free, tough o The Americans eradicated these pigs and replaced them with new pigs, new pigs were not suited to their new environment  Cattle breeds show a range of phenotypes o Canadienne Breed of Cattle-first breed developed in North America (1608-1660); less than 300 remain  Many early geneticists worked on poultry o Chantecler Breed of Chicken developed in early 1900s in Quebec Was wiped out due to lower amount of egg and meat production Geneticists reconstructed this breed Cat breeds show a range of phenotypes Selective breeding has created hairless cat breeds Sphinx, Kohana Dog breeds show an incredible range of phenotypic variation Hair, colour, tail Canadian Breeds-Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever, Canadian Eskimo Dog, Newfoundland Komondor Breed of dog Looks like sheep so that dog can properly protect sheep Shar-pei Bred for wrinkles because people like the wrinkles Hairless dog breeds Chinese Crested, Peruvian Hairless Dog Wildtype  Rabbit breeds  Rock cavy-possible ancestor of the domestic guinea pig o Domesticated ~5000BC Medel  Early views on inheritance (1800s)  Sperm and eggs were built from smaller particles supplied from all over the body  Many sperm fertilize one egg  True breeding variations/breeds show les variation  All varieties will occasionally produced “sports”  Scots Dumpy breed of chickens has very short legs 1/12/2011 6:30:00 AM Parental Characteristics are blended smoothly  This can result in new varieties or hybrids  If characteristics are being blended smoothly, why do children look different?  Also, why would children have clear gender differences? Some believed that acquired characteristics could be transmitted to offspring  Jean-Baptiste Lamarck  Not true as children do not automatically have same characteristics  E.g. just because father is body builder, does not mean children will be, though they have the potential Gregor Mendel  Born in 1822 in Silesia (part of the Austro-Hungarian empire)  Showed so much potential in school, that he was able to go to high school  Although was too expensive for his family, so they worked it out so that he could go  Sister gave up dowry, paid with eggs and milk etc  Mendel entered a monastery in 1843 as he could not afford university o Monasteries were the learning centers, he could learn then go out and teach in the elementary system  Mendel did not do well on the exam (teachers exam), failed the biology part o They were so impressed though that they made the monastery to pay for university for him  Went to the university of Vienna in 1853  Darwin’s On the Origin of Species published in 1859 Mendel did his plant breeding experiments in the botanical gardens  Used the garden pea as his experimental subject
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