Microbiology Notes.docx

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Molecular Biology and Genetics
MBG 2040
Tara Abraham

Lecture2Robert Hooke 16351703First Microscope 30x power drew nematodes coined the term cellVan Leeuwenhoek 16321723Made magnifying lenses 500x power first to observe single cell organisms AnimalculesEdward Jenner 17491823Vaccination used live cowpox to treat against small poxLarrazo Spallanzani 17291799Broth sterilized by boiling did not grow microbes proof against spontaneous generationLouis Pasteur 18221895Chirality of organic molecules fermentation metabolism brewers swan necked flasks no spontaneous generationFlorence Nightingale medical epidemiologyRobert Koch 18431910Specific microbes cause specific disease Kochs postulates 1 The microbe is found in all cases of the disease but is absent from healthy individuals 2 The microbe is isolated from the diseased host and grown in pure culture 3 When the microbe is introduced into a healthy susceptible host the same disease occurs 4 The same strain of microbe is obtained from the newly diseased hostLecture3Microorganisms are NOT necessarily microscopic not always unicellular undifferentiated nor cellularCarle Woese father of molecular phylogenyTree of Life all but the animals and plants are microbialUsed rRNA to build phylogenetic treeThe nodes show a common ancestor to specific organisms that are no longer aliveProkaryotes70S ribosomes cell walls circular genome in compact nucleoidDifference between bacteria and archaeaorRNA sequences membranes cell wallsCan be found in the most extreme environments arctic lakes mines etcMethanogens are the sole natural source of methane CH42Acidophiles usually oxidize hydrogen sulfide and elemental sulfur HSSO24Lecture4Halophiles are archaea that live in extremely salty water showing microbes can grow anywhereBacteria and archaea are symbionts of plants and animals showing a biofilm are a collection of microbes on a particular objectSome microbes in cows help digestion of plant fibers rumen is anaerobic and contains methanogensNitrogenfixing plant symbionts NNH24Figurebiogeochemical cycling the Nitrogen cycleEarths ecology is microbial ecology
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