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Music objectives and summary questions answered.docx

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MUSC 2150
Shannon Carter

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UNIT 1 SUMMARY The Importance of Historical Context All art, including music, reflects the time in which it was created, so we need to understand a song‟s historical context in order to fully understand the song. A song‟s meaning can also change over time, as the historical context surrounding it changes. Listen to Rock Around the Clock by Bill Haley and His Comets. In the extremely conservative 1950s, the sexually-suggestive lyrics were considered rather scandalous. Today, while still understood as a sexual metaphor, the song is considered by most as a bit of harmless nostalgia and not remotely racy. Why? In short, because the web of elements that make up a song‟s historical context, as outlined by Covach, has shifted its alignment over the decades since the song‟s release Rocket „88‟ -- Jackie Brenston and His Delta Cats: -bass, drums, piano, and saxophones -song is in a quadruple meter; each bar is divided into four beats. -meter is simple because each beat is divided into two parts -song is played with a shuffle rhythm; the beats are divided into two, but the two parts are unequal this type of rhythm is also called “swing rhythm.” * Simple Verse Form: consists of a series of verses, all of which use the same underlying music. It contains no chorus or bridge sections, though the verses may contain a refrain * Instrumental Verse: A verse section the repeats the music of the verse without the singing and an instrumental soloing, is an instrumental verse. Guitar, saxophones, and keyboard solos are common, though any instrument can solo. * Bar/Measure: Musicians often count out a song saying, “1, 2, 3, 4”. This is a measure of music, and the numbers represent beats. These bars usually have the same number of beats in them throughout a song (though not always). The term “measure” and “bar” are synonyms. * Rhythm: refers to organized patterning of the temporal dimension in music. More specifically, refer to a rhythmic figure in the music, which is usually a short segment with a clearly defined profile of some kind. Meter and meter classification are aspects of the broader aspect of rhythmic organization. * Meter Classification: a meter classification classifies how we feel the organization of the rhythm for a particular song or passage. Meters are classified as either simple, or compound. A meter classification can be notated using a specific meter, and through there are several meters that can be used with each classification, there are six meters that can be used with each classification, there are six meters that are most common. * Meter: meter establishes how we will notate music within a certain meter classification * Duple Meter (Simple): When there are two beats in a bar or measure of music, the meter is classified as duple. * Quadruple Meter (Simple): When there are four beats in a bar or measure of music, the meter is classified as quadruple. * Shuffle Rhythm: shuffle rhythm is often a way of playing 4/4 that transforms it into something closer to 12/8. The four beats in a measure are 4/4 are divided into equal parts. The same measure would divide the beats into three equal parts. * Triple Meter (Simple): triple meter: Tennessee Waltz by Patti Page. * Compound Meter: compound meter: What a Wonderful World by Louis Armstrong. Timbre: is a musical term that refers to the quality or “colour” of a sound. For instance: consider the difference in the sound of a flute versus a trumpet. You can distinguish one from the other easily because their tone qualities or timbres are different. We generally use rather poetic and subjective adjectives to describe timbre: the timbre of a flute is bright, brittle, or thin, while a trumpet‟s timbre is bold, brassy, or round. In popular music, timbre is most often considered in terms of the vocals or the guitar sounds. The timbres generally change according to genre and can help you identify one from the other. The timbres used in different genres also carry meaning within the genre, which we will discuss in more depth in later units. For now, just practice listening for timbre. Try coming up with other adjectives that describe each timbre to you. 1. For a thin, nasal vocal timbre, listen to Cross Road Blues by Robert Johnson. 2. For a smooth, crooning vocal timbre, listen to White Christmas by Bing Crosby. 3. For a harsh, heavy, clashing guitar timbre, listen to God Save the Queen by the Sex Pistols 4. For a light, thin, guitar timbre, listen to Love Me Tender by Elvis Presley Chapter 1 pages 3-13 COVACH notes: The fan mentality: frequently listing to the music itself as well as gathering interesting facts about both the artists and the music. As this is taking place a fan will tend to reject a lot of other music. When being a student of rock however it is vital to be as fair as we can as we study rock development and history. Chart positions: suspicion is raised with charts as the ways in which they have been put together over the years is unknown, making them susceptible to manipulation. Charts are not useful in distinguishing between the popularity of single number 1 and 5 however they are useful when distinguishing between single number 1 and 25. Therefore, these charts are good as they give a general distinction. UNIT 2 Chapter Summary Questions 1. What are some of the important similarities in the rise of country and western and rhythm and blues, especially during the 1945-55 period? What are some significant differences? Similarities Rock and roll developed from country and western and rhythm and blues (and pop music) Country and western and rhythm and blues were not mainstream music o Mainly played on the regional and local radio stations National radio and television was reserved for mainstream music –pop Both have rural roots o Soldiers in WWII brought country and western back with them, so did southerners when they migrated north to fill the factory jobs created by the war effort o Many black southerners left their field jobs to find work in the north and brought rhythm and blues with them Differences Country and western music was regional in 30s and 40s but within a few years, local and regional stations across the south began programming country and western Around 1948, Regional radio stations realized there was a large black audience for rhythm and blues, and began programming and advertising to cater to this distinctive community Nashville=centre of country and western music Chicago/Memphis=centres of rhythm and blues music Rhythm and blues was played by black musicians and was intended for black audiences o Negative racial stereotypes associated with rhythm and blues o Hokum blues – with some songs made to be for both black and white audiences Country and western was played somewhat on national radio/television, while rhythm and blues never was Different sounding music o E.g. instrumentation Country and western = steel guitar, violin, fiddle Rhythm and blues = electric guitar, bass, piano, drums, harmonica 2. What was the relationship between mainstream pop, country and western, and rhythm and blues in the 1940s and „50s? How did the music business separate out these styles? Why? These three genres contributed to the formation of rock and roll. Country and western and rhythm and blues remained on regional radio, whereas popular music was on national radio and television. Country and western and rhythm and blues were catered to poorer audiences, whereas popular music was catered to middle-class, white audiences. Popular music was the mainstream music, as it was the genre that was the most in demand at the time. 3. Radio plays a central role in the discussions in this chapter. How does it affect each of the three styles under consideration? What role does television play? The emergence of national radio allowed those that might not otherwise hear popular music a chance to hear it, thus a wider audience was exposed to popular music (e.g. listeners in farm country hearing music from nightclubs). As well, the pop music performers were heard on the radio for the majority of the time, with rhythm and blues and country and western genres rarely being played. Pop was also directed at a white, middle-class audience (and deemed “appropriate” for national radio) whereas the other two styles were deemed to appeal more to low-income white or low income black (rural or urban) listeners, and thus retained positions on regional radio. In terms of television, it was also made for a national audience, as Americans could increasingly afford television sets in the 40s and 50s; therefore the national, pop audiences converted from radio to television. This also allowed radio to return to its local and regional audiences, which opened up opportunities for the development of country and western and rhythm and blues. 4. What‟s the difference between focusing on the sale of songs and focusing on the sale of records? How does this relate to the three styles under consideration? In the pre-rock era, the central element in a record was the song, not the particular performance of it. In the era of Tin Pan Alley, the focus was on the sheet music sales (the sale of the song), and the best thing that could happen to a publisher was for the song to be recorded by a wide variety of artists. Thus the sale of the song was more important than the sale of the record (the more versions of the song, the more money that could be made by the songwriter/publisher). As well, artists wanted their songs to be on the radio, and that meant live performances on the radio; promoting a song meant much more for publishers than just getting a record out. Getting on the radio meant increasing your possibility of future bookings with radio producers. However, this was the case for popular music. For rhythm and blues and country and western, the focus was on the record. This is because since the national networks and labels were focused on popular music, the independent labels focused on the records of rhythm and blues and country and western. These labels could prosper because the major labels were so big. Thus, because there was little chance for these genres to have national audiences, it would not make sense to focus on the sale of a song when it is not going to be reproduced by others, but just played on the radio for people to enjoy. The audience of popular music versus the other two genres was different; popular music was enjoyed by national audiences, and the song was meant to be reproduced by others in Tin Pan Alley, whereas the other two genres were enjoyed by local and regional audiences, and was not going to be reproduced but simply heard and enjoyed. 5. If many Americans had prejudices against country and western and rhythm and blues music, was this because of their perceptions of the intended audiences for each style? Did country and western and rhythm and blues have features that may be seen to reinforce negative stereotypes? Yes, the perceptions of the intended audiences had a significant effect on the prejudices, especially for rhythm and blues. In this genre, because it was meant for a black audience, white listeners worried about the effects it might have on their children. The Stagger Lee myth arose, which is the idea that black men are especially driven sexually, and that their greatest conquests are white women. For example, Muddy Waters‟ “I Just Wanna Make Love to You” and songs like it confirmed the stereotype for people who believed the myth. Therefore, although the song was understood in a certain way within the black community, it was misinterpreted by white listeners unfamiliar with that culture. It convinced many parents that this genre had a dangerous influence on their teenagers, and many even worked to abolish it. As well, I think because popular music of this time was so desexualized, the introduction of any sexual reference or innuendo in rhythm and blues and country and western was viewed as scandalous and improper by popular music (mainly white) listeners. Example: in popular music “I‟m Sittin‟ on Top of the World” by Les Paul and Mary Ford VERSUS in country and western music “Hey Good Lookin‟” by Hank Williams, AND in rhythm and blues “Evil” by Howlin‟ Wolf. Courselink Unit Objectives At the end of this unit, you will be able to: 1. Identify and describe the major components of the music industry prior to 1955 and its broader historical and cultural context. The music of pre 1955 was divided into three categories: popular, rhythm and blues, and country and western. Popular music at first dominated the national audiences on the radio, and then dominated airtime on television. In contrast, rhythm and blues and country and western dominated the local and regional radio networks, and with the emergence of television, the popularity of national radio networks died down. There were certain prejudices associated with rhythm and blues and country and western, mainly that they were intended for certain audiences i.e. poor white and black listeners. As well, rhythm and blues was associated with a negative prejudice of the black community, a.k.a the Stagger Lee myth. 2. Discuss the development of a national audience in the United States. Technological advances in radio and motion picture played a central role in making popular entertainment available in all parts of the country during the first few decades of the century o The 1930s and 40s are often thought of as a golden age in the history of motion pictures Two reliable ways of reaching larger audiences (national network): o Broadcast the radio signal via high-power transmitter o To link a number of local and regional stations together to form a network When NBC went coast-to-coast with its national radio network in 1928, regional boundaries in popular culture began to blur o Network radio audiences suddenly became national audiences o The same news, music, drama, and comedy were simultaneously available to significant portions of the country For the first time, listeners within range of a regional radio station could enjoy music that might otherwise be unavailable to them (i.e. listeners in farm country could hear music from nightclubs) Network radio created an audience that stretched from the east coast to the west coast o Created a national popular culture in which music played a central role o A song could become popular almost overnight; no more waiting for word of mouth to spread from town to town and region to region o A song could be heard far and wide in a single performance Pop became national, rhythm and blues and country and western remained regional Styles often could be identified with particular regions of the country 3. Identify and describe the musical and non-musical elements of Tin Pan Alley, country/western, and blues music. Musical Elements Tin-Pan Alley o Standard and uniform though very flexible formal pattern o Sectional verse-chorus format Sectional chorus – listeners recognize this part Often use AABA form Sectional verse – introduction that sets the scene for the song Country and Western (Based on “Hey Good Lookin‟” by Hank Williams) o AABA form o Different instrumentation Solo splits between steel guitar and violin Steel takes verses and fiddle takes bridge No drums because they were forbidden in early years of the Grand Ole Opry Rhythm and Blues o Instrumentation: electric guitars, bass, piano, drums, harmonica, microphones o Stick more closely to structure than the style of early blues musicians like Robert Johnson o Jump blues – rhythm section and saxophone, like swing dance music o Leonard chess style of blues (important independent label in Chicago‟s electric blues) Rough-edged emotional directness Vocals were more expressive than beautiful or technically accomplished Instrumental playing blended technical prowess with raunchy bravura Made with the simplest equipment, which produced a raw and technically unsophisticated recorded sound E.g. “Evil” by Howlin‟ Wolf o Atlantic records – black pop Didn‟t focus on instrumental playing Backup arrangements were structured and controlled Solos rarely occurred Cleaner, more vocally oriented, and more pop oriented than the Chess style o Doo-wop Groups singing A cappella Named after nonsense syllables groups would use in their songs Added piano, bass, drums, and sometimes guitar in the studio Feature a solo singer against the accompaniment of other singers One section of the song had a sophisticated harmony-vocal rendition of one of the song‟s verses Another section features different singers from the group Another section features the entire group singing in harmony AABA form Compound time Non-Musical Elements Tin-Pan Alley o Sale of song more important than sale of record (See #4 above) o Usual mode of success came in the form of sheet music sales o Broadway musicals got songs heard o Innocent and naive lyrics/themes Country and Western o Assumed to be the music of low-income whites o Regional radio exposure in 30s and 40s o 1939, the Opry and 1933, the Barndance could be heard coast-to-coast BUT received far less exposure than popular music o Nashville=centre for country music after WWII o Country=southeast and Appalachia “hillbilly music” o Western=west and southwest “cowboy music” o Bluegrass – old-time country music Rhythm and Blues o Assumed to be the music made for and by black Americans o Remained almost completely outside the world of mainstream pop Most white listeners had no familiarity with either its artists or their music (different from country and western in this regard) Was a result of racial segregation and Stagger Lee myth o Memphis = centre of blues in 30s and 40s o Radio stations began catering their programming (rhythm and blues) and advertising (commercials) to the black community o Various recording labels (independent ones) emerged as a response to the popularity of rhythm and blues radio stations o Gospel music, Chicago electric blues, and doo wop were big influences o “hokum blues” – poked fun at various aspects of adult relationships (mainly sexual) 4. Discuss major artists and their contributions to the Tin Pan Alley, country/western, and blues genres. Tin Pan Alley Bing Crosby The most important pop singer in the 1930s and 40s o VERY successful Also acted in films and hosted his own radio variety show Depicted himself as a carefree “everyman” despite being a tireless worker and performer o Created a persona Encompassed a variety of musical styles and appealed to versatile audiences Frank Sinatra Established a new model – the pop-music singer as star Performed with Harry James and Tommy Dorsey bands and went solo in 1943 Sinatra drew followers, as other big band vocalists followed, but big bands started to break up because it was too expensive to employ everyone Patti Page “How much is that doggie in the window?” – representative of generally wholesome and inoffensive Eddie Fisher and Tony Bennett Sung more youth-oriented songs Johnnie Ray Took the male vocalist role from suave and controlled to overtly emotional and romantically melodramatic Country and Western Jimmie Rodgers Most important figure in the history of country music o "Blue Yodeler," saw him as a rustic backporch singer o "Singing Brakeman," as a roving hobo, wandering the country Hank Williams Was initially a songwriter. He appeared on the Louisiana Hayride radio show and became a regular on the Grand Ole Opry in the summer of 1949 His singing style created an impression of sincere emotional expression. Whether they were autobiographic or not, listeners perceived it as so in his music, which influenced subsequent country performers and writers Rhythm and Blues Bessie Smith 1923 “Down Hearted Blues” o Roots of selling blues records More authentically blues-based than some of the other female blues singers of her day Used best jazz musicians of the day e.g. Louis Armstrong Robert Johnson Rural blues – music of rural blacks that migrated to urban centres; flexibility-could easily add extra beats or measures Recordings became enormously influential on rock guitarists in the 1960s Performed solo and sang to accompaniment of his own acoustic guitar playing (like Jimmie Rodgers) Big Joe Turner “Shake, Rattle, and Roll” was a perfect example of the “hokum blues” o Lyrics are obvious sexual innuendos and reference to sexual themes o Laid-back rhythmic feel o Also recorded by Bill Haley and his Comets (a band made up entirely of white musicians) Original song by Big Joe Turner would have been considered obscene to white middle-class culture in the mid 1950s, so they replaced the lyrics with more wholesome images and changed the rhythm to a peppier happier feel by pushing the beat in a frantic manner 5. Distinguish aurally the musical elements of Tin Pan Alley, country/western, and blues as they operate in a song. Answer only important for listening quizzes... Hence “aurally” distinguish. 6. Draw connections between changes in the radio business and the development of previously underground musical styles. Due to the emergence of television, regional and local radio networks became the focus, allowing for the development of rhythm and blues and country and western Another underground style was bluegrass, which emerged from country and western o Became popular due to television shows and movies o Country and western went from regional musical style to one known at least to some extent by most Americans 7. Explain the effect that television had on the music industry. Radio begins to lose audience in late 1940s o The network radio national audience moved away from radio and towards television o In the 1940s and 50s more Americans could afford TVs and some of the most popular radio shows made a leap and became popular TV shows o As television grew in national prominence, radio returned to its local and regional audiences BUT it opened up new kinds of opportunities for the development of country and western and rhythm and blues (and thus rock and roll) A national audience was crucial for the emergence of rock and roll o i.e. Elvis‟s appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show UNIT #3 OBJECTIVES Discuss the broader historical context of the 1950s and early 1960s. - 1950s was known as the kinder, simpler, more innocent decade - Birth of modern civil rights, playboy magazine, and rock & roll - Soviets sent first satellite, while americans put the first men on the moon - American economy boomed = goods like cars and televisions were used much more than in the decades preceding it - These car AM radios played a significant role in the development of R&R as teens tuned in to rock and roll and rhythm and blues, well out of earshot of their parents - Much discrimination and racism towards african americans - In the years after WWII - rhythm and blues increasingly became the music of the youth culture - When rhythm & blues broke into the mainstream in 1955, R&R was born - 'first wave' - from 1955-1960 - people like Little Richard, Chuck Berry, Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis, established R&R as a style distinct from the previous music genres - White teenagers during this time thought of R&R as 'THEIR' music Identify and describe the events, organizations, and inventions that aided the rise of rock and roll. - Rise of youth culture in the 1950s - Teens had money to spend on leisure activities and luxury items - Considerable attention by parents spent on children during post-war (wanted more emphasis on 'family-time') - Adolescents wanted music that was not like their parents - enjoyed the exotic nature of Rhythm&Blues - it was considered an act of Social Rebellion - As far a parents were concerned, Rhythm & Blues - now being called R&R - led to far worse things --> this reaction made the music even more appealing to teens - Rise of the Disc Jockey in Regional Radio - end of the 1950s - the invention of the Transistor - made small portable radios available and affordable to almost everyone - Record store 'Record Rendezvous' owned by Leo Mintz - decided that Freed host a late-night show devoted to this music sponsored by the company - In 1954, Freeds 'show' debuted in New York, and he renamed it the 'Rock & Roll Party' and was soon syndicated nationally and even eventually in Europe - To many teens, Freed was the 'father of R&R' - Aggressive Marketing by Independent Labels - Most of the R&B that teens heard on the radio was recorded/released by indie labels (most were regional, not national) - Selling records = getting them played on radio, then making sure they were in stores and jukeboxes - This meant developing relationships and gifts could always facilitate a business friendship - Hit Records and the Charts - Tremendously beneficial to identify trends, especially in the business sense - Cashbox & Billboard - two most important magazines for the history of R&R - These two mags regularly contained charts that attempted to predict trends in record and jukebox sales (were originally oriented towards music-industry people) - Record storeowners used Billboard - if a particular group was rising, they would buy more copies of the record - Jukebox owners would use Cashbox - take in new records, and remove the old - Divisions in charts was mainly influenced by purchasing patterns - Thus, pop charts listed records that would be marketed to white, middle-class listeners - Blacks had the R&B charts directed at them, while low-income whites had the country & western - 'Crossover' - when a record first appears on one chart, then appears on one of the other two - Sometimes two versions of the same song would appear on the pop charts - original R&B by the black artist, and a cover by a white artist - almost always the cover did better than the original - proof that race played a significant role in pop listener's taste Identify and describe major early rock and roll artists . - Fats Domino - Scored many R&B hits in the early 1950s - Delivered his songs from the piano, gently tapping out repeated triplet chords and singing his often lyrical melodies in a relaxed manner - Warm, friendly image, that did not trigger the racial anxiety that white listeners that other bands had presented - Enjoyed consistent crossover success - Chuck Berry - blended R&B + C&W while targeting a white youth audience - "maybelline" was his #1 hit on the R&B list, and crossed over to be a #5 on the pop charts - Vocal delivery - seems influenced by his love for country music - Many white audiences who had never seem him before actually thought he was white - More flamboyant performance style - "duck walk" during guitar solos - Nothing about berry's performances that would strike white audiences as threatening or menacing - "Story Songs" - one song "school day" which depicted the daily life of the average teen - Most of his songs are in 'simple verse' or 'simple verse-chorus' form - His guitar style became one of the most imitated in rock - Solos used frequent double stops (playing 2 notes at the same time) on adjacent high strings - Little Richard - Most flamboyant performer in the early years of rock - Placed 9 hits on the pop Top 40 - His sometimes manic singing (even screaming), aggressive piano pounding, and a strong driving beat in the rhythm section - was a remarkable contrast to the other performers - WORE MAKEUP! - First image of the "wild man" in R&R - made him popular amongst teens, but made it harder for him to enter the mainstream pop realm - Was a prime target for cover versions - if the white performer took the sexual innuendoes out of the lyrics - his record would often outperform Richard's - Bill Haley & Pat Boone - "Whitening" of R&B - Bill's version of "Shake, Rattle, and Roll" removes much of the sexual playfulness from the song as performed by Big Joe Turner - changes were clearly done to make the song more successful to white listeners - Adjustments to both the lyrics and the music of rhythm and blues began to establish a model for R&R in the early years (whitening) - “Don‟t Forbid Me” by Boone was a huge success - Boone‟s music and manner were much more readily assimilated into middle-class white culture Discuss the pros and cons of the appropriation of black rock and roll by white artists. · Blacks generally resented their white cover-version counterparts o In some cases the arrangements were copied in a great deal · It became common practice in the record business to watch the R&B charts for hits and then to cover these hits on the pop market o This greatly reduced crossover potential for both original records & artists · Record labels in the pre-rock music business invested in particular singers, whose distinctive approach was hoped to set them apart and foster a “brand royalty” · If you liked a song – might want to hear a specific artists version bad then o Largely a matter of matching songs with “song stylists” Describe the major events in Elvis Presley‟s rise to fame. · First R&Rer to repeatedly have hits on all 3 charts simultaneously, while also the first R&Rer artist to draw intense interest from major labels · Sun Records in Memphis was the indie label that first signed him until he moved to RCA · Bought many of his clothes from a clothing store for blacks “Lansky Brothers” · Elvis recorded “That‟s all right [Mama]” and was played on the local radio which gained him many local fans, and himself & the group began touring · Elvis was marketed as a C&W artists, earning the title “The Hillbilly Cat” early on · As his success increased, he began to draw the attention of professionals · Colonel Tom Parker – now began working with elvis (first as a promoter, then his personal manager) · Phillips (Owner of Sun Records) sold elvis to RCA as he believed he could not get him to the national level · RCA elevated Presley to an international star – appearing on TV shows, radio shows etc. · The effect of all this was to push R&R even more toward the center o the pop mainstream · With involvement in the army from 1950-1960 he was seen now more as a Patriotic G.I., doing his part to protect the American way of life · By the end of 1957 – signed with Columbia Differentiate between rock and roll and rockabilly . · Rockabilly o Mostly recorded without drums, featuring Presley signing to the accompaniment of Black‟s acoustic bass, Elvis‟ acoustic guitar, and an electric guitar o Warm reverbation and short echo o Country and Western roots o As it moved more into the Pop mainstream – new artists emerged who put greater stylistic stress on pop at the expense of the C&W and R&B influences Discuss the payola scandal and its effect on the music industry. · Began in late 1959 · Many record labels often paid DJs to play records in on the radio, not only just in cash, but sometimes with goods & services · Because of the breakthrough of R&R, many Pop artists were on indie labels now instead of major ones · ASCAP (American Society of Composers, Artists, and Performers) – repp‟d the traditional pop composes – selective about who could be a member (C&W and R&B artists were not allowed) · BMI (Broadcast Music International) was a newer organization that welcomed the rejected ones from ASCAP o Indies and BMI represented Rock and Roll · Indie labels were buying their time on the air! Paying DJs to play that „primital musical garbage‟ as it was so-called · Congressional Committee was just winding up its investigation into TV quiz shows and now decided to turn its attention to payola in the music business o Testimony offered no significant acknowledgement that payola had been a part of the music business for decades o Played too easily into deeply ingrained American sterotypes that people involved R&B were likely to be dishonest o Federal Trades commission and Federal Communications Comission got involved- causing most stations to take some kind of action o Gifts now had to be acknowledged on the air – and any money received had to be claimed on the recipients income tax form Questions 1. How many important elements can you cite from 1955 that support its designation as the year rock and roll was born? What is the problem with assigning such a specific date to the beginning of rock music? · The years 1955 to 1960 are considered as the “first wave” of Rock and Roll · During this time, artists such as Fats Domino, Little Richard, Chuck Berry, Bill Haley, Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis, and Buddy Holly established Rock and Roll as a style distinct from the Tin Pan Alley pop, rhythm and blues, and country and western from which it emerged · During these early years of rock and roll, white teenagers thought of R&R as their music – something distinct from the culture of their parents and grandparents · Primarily the rnde of a youth culture and the roles of independent radio and record labels establish the 2 half of the 1950s as the eruption of R&R 2. Why was youth culture important to rock and roll? What were some of the elements of youth culture in the 1950s? · Adolescents wanted music that did not sound like their parents‟ music or the music of their older, college-age siblings · Listening to R&B was not simply a forbidden pleasure to white teens; it could also be an act of social rebellion · As far as many parents were concerned, listening to rhythm and blues – now being called rock and roll – led to far worse things than teenage rebellion and rowdiness, it was just this reaction that made the music all the more appealing to teens 3. What role was played by radio and record labels in the birth of rock and roll? · Many white teens got their first taste of rhythm and blues by hearing it on the radio · By the end of the 1950s, the development of the transistor made small portable radios affordable to almost anyone · Leo Mintz noticed that teenagers were buying a significant # of R&B albums in his store – he proposed that Alan Freed host a late-night show devoted to this music and sponsored by Mintz‟s company · Radio programming that had been targeted at a black audience was now being enjoyed by white teens, and at first, even DJs like Freed, didn‟t know these teenagers were listening · Many of the records were recorded by independent labels – much smaller operations and tended to be regional o Successful indie labels needed to be aggressive about marketing – selling records meant getting them played on the radio, then making sure they were in stores and jukeboxes · The emergence of R&R in the 1950s can be attributed to the entrepeneurship of both indie labels and DJs, each working on the outskirts of their respective business worlds 4. What is the difference between a cover and a crossover? What roles did they play in early rock and roll? What important debates surround this? · Crossover  when a record or song appears first on one chart, then appears one one of the other two o Can occur in two ways; First, the record itself may crossover, or the song, recorded by a different artist, may cross over · Cover  a new version of a song · Many hits on R&B were crossed-over o Sometimes, two versions of the same song would appear on the pop charts - the original R&B performance, most often performed by a black artist, and a cover version, most often performed by a white artist o With only a few notable exceptions, the versions by white artists performed better on the pop charts than the R&B originals · When the original version appeared on a small independent label, a larger independent label (or a major label) could cover the song and get its records out faster and to more outlets · But race played a significant role in pop listeners‟ tastes, and this was the source of much resentment among the black artists whose records were copied 5. Discuss important covers and crossovers. Which songs and/or artists are important and why? · Read summary above 6. Why are Pat Boone and Bill Haley particularly representative of “whitening” of Rhythm and Blues? · Bill Haley‟s version of “Shake, Rallte, and Roll” removes a good deal of the sexual playfulness from the song as performed by big joe turner – these changes were CLEARLY done to make the song more successful to white listeners · Pat boone cultivated a polite, clean-cut personal image; his musical approach in many ways continued in the mainstream pop style of Frank Sinatra while extending it to include country and western, R&B, and Gospel o Boone not only was a singer who covered R&B records for a white audience, but played a crucial role in establishing R&R within mainstream pop music in 1955- 1959 7. What are some important features of Chuck Berry‟s music? Compare and contrast Berry with Buddy Holly · Chuck Berry o Most of berry‟s songs are in simple verse or simple verse-chorus forum, often employing chord structure influenced by the 12-bar blues o Songs are relatively easy to learn, and with their catchy lyrics have been favorites with rock bands ever since the late 1950s o Berry‟s guitar style became one of the most imitated in rock – chordal accompaniements often feature characteristic two-string boogie-woogie pattern on the low strings o Solos used frequent double stops (playing two notes at the same time) on adjacent high strings o Vocals in early rock hits seem influenced by his love for country music o “Duck Walk” – which he would do during his guitar solos · Buddy Holly o One of the first major figures in rock music to have been significant;y influenced not only by R&B and C&W, but also by the R&Rs who emerged in 1955 o Influenced by Chuck berry o Was most influential among later rockers as a songwrite o Unlike berry‟s lyrics – holly‟s are NOT clever or filled with veiled references – mostly happy and positive, but not exceptional in the way that berry‟s are o Holly‟s were much more adventurous in terms of formal design Employed 12-bar blues, AABA, simple verse-chorus, and contrasting verse-chorus forms in his song-writing o Stylistic range was broader than that of most R&R songwriters of the time 8. What role did Elvis Presley play in the first wave of Rock and Roll · Was not only the 1 R&Rer to repeatedly have this on all three charts simaultaneously, but he was also the first R&Rer to draw intense interest from the Major Labels · Was especially suited to the visual meda – with good looks, sex appeal, and an electrifying performance style, his television appearances thrust him onto the national stage · No mainstream pop singers made the same moves he did – which to many critics at the time appeared aggressive and even dangerous in their overt sexuality · Invoked already familiar R&R themes  the rebellious outsider persona, a repertory and performance style drawing heavily on the music of black performers; and a sexual presence · Established the style of Rockabilly (explained above) · Move to RCA signals the greater involvement of the major recording studio in R&R USC 2150 – UNIT 4 Rise of the Producer PART 1 - Objectives of this Unit By the end of this unit you will be able to: 1. Discuss historical context of the 1950s and early 1960s. 1950’s and early 60’s historical context.  Vietnam war began while the Korean war ended in 1953  Cold War arising from the suspicion between Russia and the US o Many Americans were convinced that the Communists were trying to infliltrate their culture and overthrow the American way of life o Several people were tried and convicted of espionage o Senator Joseph McCarthy led a anti-communist campaign (witch hunt)  Soviets launched first satellite in 57 as well as development of nuclear bomb in 45 o Fueled battle and competition between the 2 countries  Americans passion for scifi stories and movies  Economic prosperity increased after WWII o Economy boomed increasing desire for homes, gadgets and cars  Cars became equipped with AM radios – teens tuned into this music without consent or need of consent by their parents  Middle aged American values were still largely reinforced by tv o Sexuality not expresses even though Hugh Hefner emerged with Playboy o Leave it to Beaver – very popular on tv  African Americans were still struggling against racism and discrimination o With the case of Brown vs Board of Education: racial segregation was ruled unconstitutional o Bus segregation ruled unconstitutional – Rosa Parks aided by Martin Luther King  Therefore : time of consumerism, civil right movements and music/tv propagation  Early 60’s marked the beginning of the British invasion 2. Discuss the role of American Bandstand in the broadening of the pop-music audience and the creation of a youth dance culture.  Broadcasted by ABC  Idea behind the American Bandstand : get a bunch of teenage kids together at a studio – dancing and musical performances of todays top hit music o Symbolized the migration of radio to TV o Hosted by Dick Clarke  Focus on the show was on dancing to pop music  Clark and recorded by Chubby Checkers introduced the Twist – later initiated a craze for named dances such as the fly, the fish or the mashed potato o Introduced the country to solo or open dancing  THERFORE – teens were reunited by music and TV – adults were more likely to accept R&R under this context = more teens were able to watch the series o This form of entertainment broadened the pop music audience by being more readily acceptable 3. Discuss how the Brill Building style of music production affected the music industry.  Used as stylistic label – returned power to the publisher and the record labels  Aldon selected a song, followed by matching it to an appropriate performing group o Professional producer would take charge of the session and musical accompaniment o Recording artist is NOT at the center of the process  Efficient way of producing music  Eliminated unpredictable or rebellious singers – specific singers could be replaced if they misbehaved  Songs were being written by pros to custom fit the expectations of the teen audience  THERFORE - BB affected the entire music industry by returning the power to publishers and record labels, making the performing artists much less important 4. Discuss the roots and inspiration behind the folk-revival movement.  Began by college students looking for music that was more real then mainstream commercial music  INSPIRATION : Addressed problems faced by the less fortunate America advocating for social change from a leftwing political perspective  Devoted a greater sense of community representative of their audience  Album sales were a better measure of the pop folk success  Key component attracting listeners was its marked populist character o Music for regular people  Construction of authenticity – performer will always need to be authentic and project this image while she/he performs  Serious minded and intellectually engaging type of music 5. Identify the musical elements of folk-revival and distinguish them aurally as they operate in a song.  Serious minded and intellectually engaging  Easygoing soft pop style  Vocals : Rough and amateurish  Often accompanied by acoustic guitar  Needs to project image of authenticity  Passionate lyrics by vocalist  Chorus usually expressed in harmony or unison  EXAMPLE The Kingston Trio “Tom Dooley” o Simple verse, chorus presented in unison, gently rolling four beat feel, accompanied by acoustic guitar  Bob Dylan, and Peter,Paul and Mary were important artists of this genre 6. Discuss the role of the record producer in late-1950s and early-1960s popular music. The producer became the specialist in changing and shaping the sounds of the record, from details of arranging find points in the recording process. Producer had total control over the production of the music as explained in Q2.  Mainstream pop artist sang song written by professionals  Made crucial decision making in the hands of the producer 7. Identify and describe the musical styles and effects created by producers. Leiber and Stoller  Often recorded playlets with the Coasters – short songs that often told a humorous story  Inspired by Broadway and radio play traditions  Lyrics can be read on more than one level o Underlying socially motivated themes  Drew from a broad range of musical styles  Orchestral sounds often found  Eclectic influences Girl Group music  Often most ambitious songs came from these groups  Made up of black teenagers with little experience in the industry  Group members were often interchangeable  Dominated by the drive of the industry to control the music  Teen and upbeat, happy style Phil Spector and Wall of Sound  Most important girl group producer in the 60’s  Wall of Sounds o Production was the star o Recording lots of instruments in a small space  Guitars, basses, pianos and drums o Blended it into ONE SOUND o Artistically ambitious  Perfectionist sounding music Sweet Soul  R&B with strings and softer approach to black pop  Elements – doowop backup vocals, counter melodies in strings and rhythm section laying down a medium tempo  The Drifters and Sam Cooke are both important artist of this style  Resemblance to gospel music Rockabilly  Rock influenced by Brill Building approach  Eager to please a teen audience without offending adult population  Originated in South US  Incorporated pop component , influences by western and r&b  Important artists include Everle Brothers and Roy Orbison Surf Music  Influenced by black doo-wop group and mainstream white vocals  Surf music, summer fun  Topics were girls, cars and surfing  Important elements of Brill Building by the writing and production of Brian Wilson  Eclectic music  Vocals from jazz, doo wop, girl club and glee-club traditions  Instrumental accompaniment heavy on Chuck Berry’s music Chapter 5 Beatlemania- the fan’s warm reaction to the band’s music · 1965 new musical styles in American Pop were emerging as a result of the cross- fertilization of American styles with Mersey beat. · Ex. Folk rock · pop music in the early 1960’s in New York, after 1964 moved to LA · 1965 Hollywood produced pop music variety shows · Monkees were direct answer to the Beatles Folk Rock · December 1960 in NYC · Idol Woody Guthrie · 3rd and 4th albums charted in English and American markets · Wrote his own music · Started as models for civil rights, changed to his thoughts and feelings trying to understand the would · ‘mr tambourine man’ recorded by the Byrds · Newport Folk Festival began controversy (July 1965) · Fiends (ex Pete Seeger) felt betrayed by his turn to electric music, felt he sold out to pop becoming a target of strong criticism · Positively 4th st.- angrily pointing his finger at the folk establishment unfairly criticizing him · Dylan’s songs showed pop music could address issues other than teenage romance and leisure concerns The Byrds and the Jingle-Jangle of the Electric Twelve-String Guitar · first international number one folk rock (one of Dylan’s songs) summer of 1965 · McGuinn played at folk clubs and worked as a Brill Building songwriter for Dylan · Documented band’s progress, documents development from folk vocal harmony to rock band · George Harrison playing electric 12 string guitar -acoustic and electric (not widely used at the time) · Dylan preforming rock versions of his songs forced the byrds to write their own material · Eight miles high - has jazz influences from jazz saxophonist · About drugs and trans Atlantic Jet - broadened horizons to include country, jazz, avant-garde and became one of the most influential bands in American psychedelia Byrds, Dylan, Beach Boys and Music Buisness · byrds recording Dylan represents convergence for several elements of the music business · Many thought of it as an antithesis to brill building music or surf music · Mcguinn plays electric 12 string and david crosby sings Simon and Garfunkel Go Electric · shows transformation from folk into folk rock · Modeled acts on the Everly Bros. While in highschool · Appearing on American Bandstand · Picked up by Columbia Records (same as the byrds) · Augmented acoustic version of sound of silence appears on the album with jangly guitar, electric bass and drums (byrds style) resulting in a folk- rock single · Scarborough Fair/ Canticle began movement away from rock, towards acoustic Barry McGuire, the Turtles and Mamas and Papas · Eye of destruction - first song specifically written for folk rock (written by PF Sloan) · Sloan was hired to create folk like songs mimicking sense of social protest in most folk · Mamas and the Papas (formed on 1965) followed folk migration west from Greenwich Village to LA · Group members had worked in vocally oriented pop or folk acts · Showcased John Phillip’s four part vocal arrangements and doo-wap, often accompanied by rock rhythem section of drums, electric bass, guitars and key-boards. · Adapted sound into more folk than rock , sounding like kingston trio · Making a pop/folk succession reaching back and forward into Psychedelic era American Pop on Both Coasts LA: Spector and His Legacy · british= tremendous influence on american pop · Beatles, The Crystals, and Ronettes - all Spector produced · Crushed by the failure of ‘River deep, Mountain High Spector retired (also worked with the beatles after retirement) The Beach Boys · competing with the Beatles at this point, fighting for attention of fans and their record company · Wilson stopped tour in December 1964 to writing and recording backtracks for the group when they returned · Pet Sounds set a new standard for record production and musical sophistication within rock · Clearly a combination of Spector’s wall of sound with Wilson’s vocal harmony · Pet Sounds became one of the most influential records of the 1960’s prodding the beatles to more experimentation Ride the Ambitious Surf: Brian Wilson a Producer · symphonic sensibilities with surf music · Simple and straight forward, Identical to Spector’s ‘Be my baby’ Sonny and Cher: Dylan Meets the Wall of Sound · working in LA 1950’s · Sonny worked for Specialty Records writing songs (part time) · Then started to handle promotion for Spector’s Philles label becoming the producers trusting aid · sang back up for bands · Preformed as Caesar and Cleo · Moved from folk rock into more traditional pop · Insisted on dressing themselves Gary Lewis and the Playboys, and Johnny Rivers · Out of LA · Appeared in father Jerry Lewis’s movies · 11 US hits, influenced by the beach boys · Band broke up when lewis was drafted to the army in late 1950’s · Johnny rivers born john ramistella · Established himself as a live performer favoring Whiskey-a-go-go playing mostly rock oldies · Lou Adler signed him to Imperial records · Secret agent man written in part by Sloan became theme song for a popular tv show · Enjoyed 11 singles in the top 40’s · Started soul city lable 1966 signing song writer jimmie webb · Up Up and Away winning Grammy award in 1967 Lovin’ Spoonful and the Rascals · migration of folk music from greenwich village to southern california (1965-65) · Disliking neglect from nyc record labels · cass elliot, denny doherty, steve boone and joe butler, inspired by the beatles · Karma sutra records (newly formed label) released do you believe in magic · the Young Rascals (renamed the Rascals) were formed out of the blue clubs rather than from Greenwich Village folk scene · Rhythm and blues influenced · Not an answer to the beatles · Opened for the beatles thanks to Sid Bernstein · Produced by Atlantic Old Gaurd Hangs On: New York · Don Krischner left Brill Building for LA ( leaving Aldon for Colpix) · Leiber and Stoller forming label Red Bird, releasing many hits · Turning production of the drifters to Bert Berns · Berns forming Band! Records with bosses at Atlantic (Ahmet and Neshui Ertegun and Jerry Wexler) · Most success with Neil Diamond (beginning on Bang!) · The Four Seasons not influenced by the British invasion (recording for Vee Jay records) · Bob Crewe producing their singles · 25 US Top 40 hits · Music production in NYC ended when the British invaded Garage Bands (1960’s) The Kingsmen and Louie Louie · record labels tried to cash in on the local inexperienced bands · Garage bands often had 1 hit, (band matures from charming amateurish sound after success) produced on simple equipment, rehearsing in basements or garages · Many punk bands took inspiration from amateur, rough-and -tumble garage bands · First important national garage band hit was louie louie- the kingsmen (recorded for $50) · Calypso- rhythm and blues · song declared pornographic · Picked up by Boston DJ spiking success TV Rock Paul Rivere and the Raiders · formed in Indiana relocating to LA, moving to Portland, rejoining LA · Debuting in 1962 on the Dick Clark show Where the Action is (launched in response to ABC’s Shindig). NBC later with Hullabaloo all three targeting american teenagers · Where the action is in conjunction with columbia records helping Paul Revere and the Raiders Monkees’ Tail · group the benefit the most from TV exposure · NOT formed to make records · Response to Hard day’s night trying to emulate the beatles films · Hired 4 unknows who could be trained focusing efforts on acting skills · Tracks produced by Tommy Boyce and Bobby Hart · Initially they did not take part in the writing of the songs, but after people found out the rock community started to discredit the group · Debuting at number 1 in America, spreading to the UK · The band especially Nesmith began to resent the fact they couldnt play their own music on the records or tv · Eventually gaining control of their music while their popularity was diminishing · Music produced according to Brill Building pattern · Songs generally in simple verse form with no real chorus, bubblegum feel · Musical contrast provided by unique interludes making the tracks more complex · Kirschner went on to produce cartoon bands such as the Archies and Scooby Doo aimed at teenagers Unit 6 Objectives: 1. Identify and discuss the influences working on the folk rock artists of the 1960s. -American response to the British invasion of American pop charts -many performers were already singing about social injustice with acoustic guitar or banjo (folk) so they just transitioned to using electric guitar and bass (rock) creating folk rock 2. Identify the musical elements of folk rock and the genre‟s major artists. -easy strumming-and-singing texture of folk combined with the Beatles-like electric guitars, bass, drums, and sometimes keyboards – many of the first folk-rock records simply set pre- existing folk songs to a rock beat and instrumentation -Bob Dylan: one of the most respected and emulated folk-singers of the period, strongly influenced by Woody Guthrie, started using electric instruments -The Byrds: first international number one folk-rock single (Mr. Tambourine Man), progressed from a folk vocal-harmony band to a rock band, distinct jingle-jangle guitar sound (Rickenbacker electric twelve), initially made rock versions of folk songs -Simon and Garfunkel‟s „The Sounds of Silence‟: jangly guitar, electric bass and drums in the style of the Byrds added to their acoustic song -Mamas and the Papas: very successful, more folk than rock 3. Distinguish aurally these elements as they operate in a song. -Listen to “Mr. Tambourine Man” by the Byrds 4. Identify and describe the role TV played in the American music industry‟s attempt to emulate the Beatles. -“Where the Action Is” (Dick Clark‟s rock variety show on CBS), “Shindig” (ABC, Jack Good) and “Hullabaloo” (NBC) all targeted America‟s teenagers and provided wide exposure for British invasion and American acts -The Monkees were originally formed to do a television series that would be supported by records – response to the Beatles‟ “A Hard Day‟s Night” and “Help” -intent to reproduce the spirit of fun and wit -even though it was primarily a TV show, the music had great success 5. Identify and describe the instruments of a rock band and how each one functions. -Rhythm section: establish a solid foundation of rhythm and harmony that will provide a background for singers or instrumental soloists -Drums and percussion: establish tempo, meter and the “feel” of a song; drum set (snare, bass, high-hat, tom-toms, cymbals), tambourine, cowbell, conga drums, hand claps; use one pattern for verses and another for bridges or choruses, as well as drum fills to help lead the music from section to section -Electric bass: “lock in” with the drummer rhythmically, provide the bass notes to the harmony played by guitar and/or keyboard; bridge between rhythmic and harmonic dimensions of music; sometimes uses a walking bass line; has four strings tuned an octave below the bottom four strings of the guitar (same thing as an upright bass) -Rhythm Guitar and Keyboards: rhythm guitar fleshes out the harmonic dimension by playing full chords and will lock in with the snare; rhythm guitar can be played on acoustic or electric guitar; most often the rhythm guitar part complements the bass and drum parts and these three establish the harmonic and rhythmic basis for the song; if keyboards used with rhythm guitar they will play the same part, but organ will simply sustain notes -Singers and Solos -Lead singers and backup vocals: focus on the melodic dimension of the music and are sometimes very free with the rhythmic placement of their melody notes; deliver the song‟s lyrics in a convincing manner; sometimes a singer has backup vocals which adds a harmony to the melody or supports or echos some part of it -Instrumental solos: create contrast in arrangements; brought in somewhere past the midpoint in a song; an arrangement can have more than one solo; soloist is the central focus, taking the place in the spotlight usually reserved for the singer; serves to make the return of the vocals sound fresh -Horns and strings: some arrangements use these to add finishing touches to a track; horn sections have trumpets, trombones and saxophones and are used to add a little “punch”; adding strings (real or synthesized) makes the arrangement sounds bigger and more elegant and can give the end of a track a convincing lift; used to enhance without drawing too much attention to itself 6. Distinguish aurally these instruments as they appear in a song. -Listen to “Smoke on the Water” by Deep Purple (drums, electric bass, electric guitar, organ, solo vocal on verses with backup vocal on choruses) and “Bye Bye Love” by the Everly Brothers (snare drum, upright bass, acoustic guitars, duet lead vocals on choruses and solo vocals on verses) Chapter 6 Discussion: 1. What was Berry Gordy‟s approach in running Motown? How does this relate to previous approaches used by others? Berry Gordy wanted to produce records taht could cross over from the rhythm and blues charts to the pop charts, so Gordy adopted Chuck Berry‟s practise that prevented covers of his songs to be done by white artists. Gordy decided to make Motown singles acceptable to white listeners in their original Motown versions. Gordy borrowed the idea of giving songwriting and production duties to a collection of specialized individuals and teams from Lieber and Stoller. 2. Who are the important songwriters and producers at Motown? Who are the important artists at Motown and who produced them in each case? Important songwriters and producers at Motown included William “Mickey” Stevenson and William “Smokey” Robinson, as well as the Brian Holland, Lamont Dozier, and Eddie Holland team (“H-D-H”). Also Norman Whitfield, Frank Wilson and the team of Valerie Ashford and Nick Simpson. The important artists at Motown were the Miracles produced by Gordy and Robinson, Mary Wells produced by Robinson, the Supremes, the Four Tops and Martha and the Vandella, those three produced by H-D-H and the Temptations produced by Whitfield. 3. What role did the following figures play at Motown: the Funk Brothers, Maxine Powell, Cholly Atkins? The Funk Brothers was the name of the studio band used by Motown, whose key players were pianist Earl Van Dyke, drummer Bennie Benjamin and electric bassist James Jamerson. The Funk Brothers created what was referred to as the “Motown Sound”. Maxine Powell was in charge of “the charm school” where she taught the men and women how to move and speak with grace. Cholly Atkins was a Broadway choreographer who would come up with the dancing and movement portion for Motown artists. 4. How did the relationship between Atlantic and Stax begin? Who are the important figures on the business end? Larger labels (like Atlantic) often licensed a recording from a smaller label (like Stax) which would relieve the smaller company of the significant financial commitment that pressing large numbers of records required while giving them access to markets that would otherwise be closed to them and the larger companies benefited from sharing in the profits of records that were already in many cases regional hits and more innovative stylistically. Stax Records was founded by Jim Stewart and Estelle Axton and came to the attention of Atlantic‟s Jerry Wexler with the single “Cause I Love You”, so Atlantic leased the national rights to the record and then continued to do so with several other records. 5. Who are the important artists at Atlantic/Stax? How were production and song-writing duties handled at Atlantic/ Stax? Otis Redding was a very important artist, as was Wilson Pickett, and the duo Sam and Dave. Aretha Franklin had the greatest success of any of the artists. At Stax production duties and credits were shared among the musicians, Stewart and other Stax regulars present at the sessions. Stax had songwriters David Porter and Isaac Hayes. 6. What role did the following play in southern music: Booker T. and the MG‟s, Rick Hall, and Jim Stewart? Booker T. and the MG‟s was the studio band at Stax and would often have to pull together the backing tracks on the spot, often without music or prepared arrangements. Rick Hall owned and operated Fame Studios, as well as a music publishing company. Wexler brought Pickett to Hall‟s studio where some of his best-known tracks were recorded, such as “Land of 1000 Dances”, “Mustang Sally”, and “Funky Broadway”. Jim Stewart was one of the founders of Stax Records. 7. How did James Brown‟s career develop from the mid 1950s to the end of the 1960s? James Brown started his career as a stand-in for Little Richar, and by the mid 1950s he had gained some regional attention as a member of the Fabulous Flames. Brown‟s early hits were in the style of 1950s doo-wop, but in 1960 with “Think”, he began to develop his famous soul style in which his aggressive singing and the rhythmic groove are the clear focal points of the music. By the early 1960s he was well-known for his stage show, which featured his athletic dancing and the famous closing routine in which he is led off stage exhausted, only to vault back into the spotlight with fresh energy. James Brown wrote and produced most of his hits. By the late 1960s Brown‟s music turned toward funk 8. Is it possible for one kind of black pop to be “blacker” than another? If so, in which aspect(s) of the music does this occur: image, publicity, performance, or recording? Can you hear this “blackness”? The southern soul of Stax/Atlantic has sometimes been characterized as being truer to black culture than the productions of Motown. As for the musical style, Motown music is much more pop-oriented, focusing on the song and the vocals, never making too much of its blackness. Motown though was owned and run by black Americans and until the mid 1960s, almost everyone involved with Motown was black. Stax and Atlantic both has white owners, and mostly white producers. The Stax band was half white and half black, while the Motown band was all black, but the Stax band is considered to be “blacker”. Unit 7: Objectives 1. Discuss the sound of northern pop vs. southern soul Northern pop has a graceful smooth and round timbre, similar to Tin Pan Alley and Brill Building styles. Southern soul is a strongly African American gospel, rhythm and blues inspired music centered mainly at the STAX and Atlantic labels, providing the rough, raw timbre. It was a harder edged brand of black pop and had a more openly enthusiastic emotional expression. 2. Aurally distinguish elements of these sounds in songs Northern pop uses a coda (a short epilogue tacked onto the song) and uses the call and response throughout there songs, which connects to gospel via doo-wop and blues influences. They also include back up singers. After some time they included choreographed dance steps, and precision in the instrumental parts, especially those laying down the groove. Southern soul includes 3-4 horns which is known as, “Memphis horns”. There is a delayed backbeat (strong beats on 2 and 4, beats are normally weak). This type of music also includes a “melisma” which is a melody with no full words under it, just a syllable. It sounds impassioned 3. Discuss the labels and producers behind the genres Motown -Gordy Jar was head of Motown records 1) He modeled releases like already popular groups from the Brill Building 2) Wanted to make cross over hits and in order to do that he had to make the Motown sound appeal to white audiences a. This was the reason why Motown became so successful - He gave song writing and production duties to specialized individuals and teams 1) This followed the Brill Building/Leiber and Stoller approach -Smokey Robinson= most successful early producer in Motown -The 1964-67 years Motown were dominated by the tremendous success of the Brian Holland, Lamont Dozier, and Eddie Holland team; they were responsible for a string of hits by the Supremes, the Four Tops, and Martha and the Vandellas. The H-D-H left Motown late in 1967 over a royalty dispute. -Norman Whitfield took over as lead producer in the early 70s when the H-D-H left. Atlantic, Stax and Southern Soul 1) Atlantic in the early 60s a. Atlantic Records were based out of New York and enjoyed hits from Drifters, Coasters and Ben E King b. Started the hard sound of Black Southern Soul c. Jerry Wexler produced the majority of records in the 1960s and played a crucial role in developing southern soul throughout the decade. He worked with Bert Berns to produced a series of successful singles. d. Big difference between sweet and southern soul i. Sweet soul=elegant and restrained ii. Southern soul=enthusiastic emotional expression found in black churches Soulsville, USA: The Memphis Connection 1) Atlantic records joined up with Stax records (based in Memphis) as the relationship was beneficial for both (see pg 244) 2) Stax was founded in 1964 by Jim Stewart and Estelle Atton 3) The agreement essentially allowed Stax and Atlantic records to share artists and records 4. Discuss major artists of both types of music Motown Artists 1) The Temptations a. Athletic choreographed dance moves b. First hit „the way you do the things you do‟ c. Smokey Robinso
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