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MUSC 2150
Shannon Carter

Unit  1:  pg  1-­‐15,  16-­‐33   Studying  Rock   -­‐ Elvis  came  on  the  scene  in  the  1950’s  starting  a  shocking  movement  that  the  Beatles,   Madonna,  and  Prince  continued  in  the  coming  decades   -­‐ Term  “rock  and  roll”  is  generally  used  to  describe  the  first  wave  of  Rock  from  1954 -­‐ 1959   o Others  term  “rock”  as  music  after  1964   Rock  History  in  the  Media   -­‐ Magazines  such  as  Rolling  Stone  and  Mojo,  books,  and  cable   networks  such  as  VH-­‐1   and  MTV  take  the  history  of  rock  and  bring  it  to  the  general  public,  promoting   interest  in  rock  history   -­‐ In  many  cases,  information  found  in  the  popular  media  is   designed  primarily  for   entertainment  and  can  be  skewed  and  unreliable  due  to  the  majority  of  revenue  for   these  outlets  being  brought  in  through  advertising   The  Fan  Mentality   -­‐ Fans  of  rock  music  listen  frequently  to  the  music  of  a  particular  artist,  group  or  style   and  gather  interesting  facts  about  both  the  artists  and  the  music   -­‐ When  it  comes  to  studying  music,  it  is  important  to  keep  the  “fan  mentality”  at  bay,   as  fans  tend  to  ignore  artists  they  do  not  like,  which  create  an  imbalanced  learning   curve   Chart  Positions   -­‐ Charts  help  us  draw  general  conclusions  about  the  general  popula rity  of  a  song  or   album  at  the  time  it  was  released   -­‐ Charts  can  also  be  useful  to  compare  certain  songs  on  the  way  they  fared  on   different  charts  (ex.  Song  may  be  #1  on  country  music  chart,  but  only  #5  on   Billboard  chart)   -­‐ Charts  help  to  avoid  the  fan  mental ity   -­‐ However,  charts  are  not  precision  instruments  for  measuring  a  song  or  albums   success,  and  they  do  not  accurately  reflect  the  influence  of  some  songs   -­‐ They  are  the  best  instruments  to  judge  listeners  changing  tastes,  even  if  they  are   flawed   -­‐ Record  Industry  awards  gold  records  for  sales  of  500,000  units  and  platinum   awards  for  over  1  million  units  sold  which  is  a  more  accurate  measurement  of   popularits  of  an  album  or  single   Four  themes  of  Rock  Development   -­‐ Four  themes  (outlines  throughout  the  chapters  of  th e  text):     o social/political/  cultural   o  race/class/gender   o  development  of  music  business   o  development  of  technology   -­‐ Music  business  has  changed  dramatically  since  the  1950s,  as  the  rock  element  of   business  has  grown   -­‐ Rise  of  radio  in  1920s  or  TV  after  WW2   contributes  to  the  development  of  music   technology  as  well  as  culture   -­‐ Race  class  and  gender  are  essential  to  understanding  the  origins  and  stereotypes  of   rock   Tracking  the  Popularity  Arc   -­‐ In  the  1970s  few  New  Yorkers  were  aware  of  the  emergence  of  the  punk   rock  scene   until  it  took  spotlight  in  1978   -­‐ The  rise  of  punk  from  a  small,  regional  underground  scene  to  mainstream  pop   culture,  and  its  subsequent  retreat  follows  a  pattern  called  “popularity  arc”   o Most  specific  rock  styles  follow  this  template    How  did  this  style  arise?    When  did  it  peak  in  popularity?    Does  it  still  exist  in  culture  somewhere?   What  to  listen  for  in  Rock   -­‐ Musical  Form:  the  structure  and  organization  of  different  sections  in  a  song  or  piece   -­‐ Instrumentation:  the  types  of  instruments  used  in  a  giv en  recording  can  drastically   change  the  way  a  song  sounds  and  allow  for  variation  within  a  performance   -­‐ Rhythm:  the  ways  musical  sounds  are  organized  in  time   -­‐ Beat:  regular  rhythmic  pulse   -­‐ Meter:  the  way  of  organizing  rhythm  and  beats,  how  many  beats  per   measure,  how   beats  may  be  subdivided   o Simple  meter:  when  each  beat  is  evenly  divided  into  two  parts   o Compound  meter:  when  each  beat  is  evenly  divided  into  3  parts   o Duple:  meter  grouped  into  2  parts   o Triple:  meter  grouped  into  three  beats   o Quadruple:  meter  group ed  into  4  beats   o Note:  if  time  signature  has  /8  it  is  compound,  if  it  has  /4  it  is  simple   o Quadruple  compound  time  is  thought  of  as  “shuffle”  rhythm  (12/8)   -­‐ Verse:  section  with  repeating  music  and  non -­‐repeating  lyrics   -­‐ Simple  verse  form:  employs  only  verses   -­‐ Chorus:  section  that  repeats  the  same  music  and  lyrics  in  each  presentation   -­‐   Rocket  88   1. Rocket  88   2. Jackie  Brenston  and  his  Delta  Cats   3. First  rock  and  roll  song   4. This  song  is  in  a  quadruple  meter;  each  bar  is  divided  into  four  beats.  You  can   count  the  beats  ONE-­two-­Three-­four  in  time  with  the  bass  on  the  recording.   Beat  one  is  the  strongest,  beat  three  is  the  second  strongest  and  beats  two  and   four  are  weak.     a. The  meter  is  simple  because  each  beat  is  divided  into  two  parts;  you  can   hear  this  most  clearly  by  counting  along  with  the  saxophones  from  00:50.   b. The  song  is  played  with  a   shuffle  rhythm;  the  beats  are  divided  into  two,   but  the  two  parts  are  unequal:   ONE-­‐(and)-­‐uh-­‐two-­‐(and)-­‐uh-­‐Three-­‐(and)-­‐ uh-­‐four-­‐(and)-­‐uh.  The  word  “and”  in  brackets  is  silent.  This  type  of  rhythm  is   also  called  “swing  rhythm.”   5. The  instrumentation  of  this  song  includes  electric  guitar,  drums,  piano,  and   saxophones.  Work  to  distinguish  each  sound  in  the  mix.   6. Musical  form:  simple  verse   7. Song  features:  first  rock  and  roll  song,  actually  written  by  ike  turner,   12  Bar  Blues   -­‐ Common  structural  pattern  found  in  rhythm  and  blues,  rock  and  roll,  many  styles  of   jazz   -­‐ Consists  of  12  groups  of  4  beat  measures   o Falls  into  3  groups  of  4:  measure  length,  phrasing  and  lyrics,  chord  structure   o First  four  measures:  phrase;  feature  a  lyric  repeated  in  the  subsequent  4   measures;  the  lyric  in  the  final  four  measures  often  complete  the  thought   begun  in  the  initial  phrase    Question-­‐question-­‐answer   o First  line  in  each  verse  is  repeated  in  the  second  phrase,  with  the  third   phrase  completing  the  thought  with  a  new  line   -­‐ Doo-­‐Wop  progression:  most  often  associated  with  doo -­‐wop  of  1950s   o Can  form  the  underlining  structures  of  songs  line  Sh -­‐Boom,  a  chord  on  every   beat  forming  a  harmonic  pattern  that  repeats  through  the  entire  song  except   the  bridge   Sh-­Boom   1. Sh-­‐Boom   2.  The  Chords   3. Doo-­‐Wop   4. Quadruple  meter,  simple,  shuffle  rhythm   5. Instrumentation:  drum,  electric  guitar,  saxophone,  bass,  piano,  solo  vocals,   lead   vocals   6. Musical  form:  simple  verse  with  interludes  and  a  bridge   7. Song  features:  The  record  rose  to  #3  on  the  rhythm -­‐and-­‐blues  charts  and  #9  on  the   pop  charts  (#2  and  #5,  respectively,  on  the  list  of  Most  Played  Jukebox  Hits),  an   almost  unheard  of  feat  for  a  crossover  hit  at  that  time.  The  Chords  were  also  the  first   R&B  group  in  the  1950s  to  put  song  in  the  Pop  Top  10   Heartbreak  Hotel   1. Hear
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