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Lecture

Unit 2.pdf

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Department
Music
Course Code
MUSC 2150
Professor
Shannon Carter

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UNIT  2  pg  34-­‐50,  51-­‐73   The  Nineteen  Twenties,  Thirties,  and  Forties:   -­‐ The  decades  of  the  1920s,  30’s,  and  40’s  in  America  were  to  a  great  extent  shaped  by   three  crucial  events:  the  end  of  World  War  I,  the  stock  market  crash  of  1929,  and   World  War  II.     -­‐ When  the  war  ended,  Americans  felt  simultaneous  relief  and  fear,  therefore   upheaval  in  world  politics  was  reflected  in  the  arts,  with  the  emergence  of  riotous   new  forms  of  literatures,  dance,  and  m usic.   -­‐ In  this  period,  songs  remained  the  dominant  form  of  pop  music  in  the  1920s,  but  the   radical  sound  of  Louis  Armstrong,  Duke  Ellington  and  others  helped  define  the   decade  musically.  F  Scott  Fitzgerald  dubbed  the  1920s  the  jazz  age,  and  jazz’s  strong   rhythms,  jagged  melodies,  and  big  sound  made  people  get  up  on  dance,  with  female   “flappers”  dancing  right  alongside  their  male  counterparts.   -­‐ Then  followed  by  Black  Tuesday,  million  lost  their  jobs.   -­‐ Franklin  Roosevelt  was  elected,  which  give  jobs  to  people.   -­‐ At  the  same  time  holocaust  occurred  in  Germany.   -­‐ Upon  the  surrender  of  the  Japanese  and  Germany,  American  soldiers  returned  home   as  conquering  heroes.   -­‐ A  bill  signed  by  GI.  Bill,  allowed  more  Americans  to  attend  college,  creating  a  baby   boom  that  has  a  consequences  in  American  Cultures.  Since  the  children  will  have   money  and  spend  it  on  Music.     The  World  before  Rock  and  Roll   -­‐ In  1956,  Elvis  Presley  appeared  in  a  show  which  was  the  source  of  considerable   controversy.  On  one  of  the  show,  Milton  Berle  Show,  Elvis  had  launched  into  an   improvised  ending  to  the  tune,  grinding  his  hips  suggestively  as  he  sang.  In  spite  of   the  protests  form  the  parents.  Elvis  became  the  central  figure  in  the  new  kind  of   popular  music  intended  for  teens:  rock  and  roll.   -­‐ Rock  and  roll  developed  out  of  three  principal  sources  that  preceded  it:  Mainstream   pop  music,  rhythm  and  blues,  and  country  and  western.   -­‐ It  also  tells  that  new  technologies  such  as  radio  and  television  play  an  important   role  in  critical  shift     Building  a  national  audience  for  music  and  entertainment   -­‐ Sheet  music  publishers  and  professional  songwriters   -­‐ Newly  development  of  technology  such  as  television  and  radio  made  huge  impact  on   distributing  performances.   -­‐ In  the  first  half  of  twentieth  country,  the  primary  method  of  distr ibution  was  by   selling  sheet  music.   -­‐ Tin  Pan  Alley,  is  the  place  where  songwriters  and  producers  clustered  to  form  the   geographic  heart  of  this  industry.   -­‐ Many  songs  followed  the   sectional  verse-­chorus  format,  in  which  the  chorus  is  the   part  of  the  song  listeners  are  likely  to  recognize  awhile  the  verse  is  an  introduction   that  sets  the  scene  of  the  song.   -­‐ Usually  in  a  style  of  AABA  form  that  is  32  measures.   -­‐ The  sectional  verse-­‐chorus  is  rare  in  rock  and  roll,  but  it  plays  a  central  role  in  rock.   -­‐ In  Tin  Pan  Alley  era,  the  basic  unit  of  trade  was  the  song  itself,  not  a  specific   recording  of  the  song.  A  successful  song  was  recorded  by  a  series  of  artists,  each   trying  to  tailor  the  tune  of  his  or  her  personal  style.   -­‐ Professional  songwriters  composed  songs,  and  publ ishers  worked  to  get  each  tune   heard  by  the  public.  At  the  same  time,  the  songwriters  themselves  were  rarely   performers,  so  publishers  had  to  “pitch”  songs  to  artists  who  might  consider   performing  them.   -­‐ With  the  rise  of  musical  theatre  in  1930s,  broadways   musicals  became  a  prime   vehicle  for  bring  songs  to  the  public.   -­‐ When  sound  films  became  popular  in  1930s,  musicals  were  often  released  in  film   versions  and  new  musicals  were  composed  expressly  for  the  movies.   -­‐ Radio  was  the  best  way  to  promote  a  song  during   the  1930s  and  40s,  and  was   dominated  by  big  bands  form  1935 -­‐45  and  by  star  singers  from  1947 -­‐55.     National  vs.  Regional   -­‐ By  the  end  of  nineteenth  century,  majority  of  Americans  lived  in  a  world  very  much   conditioned  by  their  local  and  regional  surroundings.   -­‐ Musical  time  is  usually  identified  by  the  particular  regions  of  the  country.   -­‐ Usually  play  or  hear  performed  in  person,  at  a  vaudeville  show.   -­‐ Later,  technological  and  marketing  developments  in  radio  and  motion  picture  made   the  same  kinds  of  popular  entertainment  available  throughout  the  country,  in  many   ways  breaking  down  regional  differences.   -­‐ The  first  technology  innovation  was  radio,  this  allows  some  pope  styles  to  become   national  while  others  kept  their  regional  identities.   -­‐ Mainstream  pop  targeted  white,  middle-­‐class  listening  audience  that  is  played  on   network  radio.  However,  low  income  listeners  were  most  excluded  since  country   and  western  and  rhythm  and  blues  is  what  they  listen,  as  a  consequence  they   retained  their  regional  distinctions.     The  rise  of  the  radio  networks  in  the  1920s   -­‐ The  radio  broadcasters  tried  to  get  radio  into  every  home  in  America  by  building   high  power  transmitters.   -­‐ The  government  also  licensed  a  few  stations  for  exclusive  use  of  a  particular   frequency,  which  could  regularly  reach  entire  multistate  regions.   -­‐ The  second  way  to  reach  a  large  audience  was  to  link  a  number  of  local  and  regional   stations  together  to  form  a  network.   -­‐ The  network  has  a  few  advantages:  programming  could  be  run  from  a  central   location,  and  it  was  possible  to  run  live  broadcast  from  member  stations.   -­‐ Live  radio  was  also  an  important  vehicle  for  music  publishers,  who  had  to  convince   bandleaders  and  singers  not  only  to  perform  a  song,  but  also  using  the  song  in  their   live  show  would  serve  their  career  interests.   -­‐ Through  the  medium  of  radio  a  song  could  become  popular  almost  overnight,  with   radio  a  song  could  be  heard  far  and  wide  in  a  single  performance.   -­‐ Radio  in  the  1930s  and  40s  performed  their  music  live  on  the  radio  since  before   1945  it  was  considered  unet hical  to  play  records  on  the  air.   -­‐ It  was  a  benefit  to  live  musicians  who  took  advantage  to  work  opportunities   afforded  by  radio  to  fill  the  gaps  between  network  programs  and  other  contexts.   -­‐ Some  stations  employed  a  studio  band  for  local  programming.   Regional  Styles  of  Country  and  Western  Music   -­‐ “Country”  Music  in  the  Southeast  in  the  1930s.  Country  and  western  music   remained  mostly  regional  until  after  1945.     -­‐ There  are  many  styles  of  music  that  come  together  as  “country  and  western”  kept   distinctive  regional  accents  until  the  late  1940s,  when  Nashville  became  a  hub  for   this  type  of  music.   -­‐ The  regional  styles  can  be  divided  into  “country”  music  from  the  southeast  and   Appalachia,  and  “western”  music  from  the  West  and  southwest.   -­‐ Ralph  Peer,  a  producer  who  roamed  in  South  in  search  of  what  record  companies   called  “hillbilly  music”  which  he  recorded  many  of  the  earliest  country  performers.   -­‐ He  travelled  towns,  setting  up  gears  as  he  went,  and  local  musicians  lined  up  to   record  on  his  equipment.      “Western”  Music  in  the  Southwest  and  California  in  the  1930s   -­‐ Western  music  reflected  the  wide  open  prairie  of  the  cowboys.     -­‐ Gene  Autry  was  the  first  singing  cowboy  to  be  appear  in  the  Wild  West  films.     -­‐ Patsy  Montana  made  her  mark  as  the  singing  cowgirl  with  “I  want  to  be  a  c owboy’s   sweet  heart”  and  featured  a  yodeling  style  influenced  by  Jimmie  Rodgers.   -­‐ Historians  may  dispute  how  authentically  western  some  of  this  music  was,  but  for   the  national  movie-­‐going  public,  these  artists  defined  “cowboy  music”   -­‐ Western  swing  also   helped  to  define  western  music  as  a  style  that  put  a  cowboy   twist  on  the  big  band  idea.   -­‐ In  addition  to  rhythm  section  and  horns,  as  one  might  expect  of  a  radio  dance  band,   western  swing  featured  fiddles,  a  steel  guitar  and  mariachi  style  trumpet  from   Mexico,  an  example  is  Will’s  “New  San  Antonio  Rose”  .   Jimmie  Rodgers:  The  first  star  of  country  music   -­‐ The  historical  and  cultural  context  in  which  country  and  western  music  reached  a   mainstream  pop  audience  are  essential  element  to  understanding  the  overall   development  of  these  styles.   -­‐ Rodgers’s  music  and  performance  made  him  a  national  star,  he  was  primarily  a  solo   performer,  who  sang  and  played  the  acoustic  guitar  such  as  “Blue  Yodel”.   -­‐ He  was  later  imitated  by  western  singers  such  as  Gene  Autry,  Ernest  Tubb  an d  Eddy   Arnold.     Rural  and  Urban  Blues   Migration  Patterns  from  the  Rural  south  to  the  Urban  North   -­‐ In  the  beginning,  pop  music  played  by  black  musicians  and  intended  for  black   listening  audiences  was  called  race  music  until  Jerry  Wexler  coined  the  term   “rhythm  and  blues”.   -­‐ During  first  half  of  the  twentieth  century  black  pop  music  was  outside  of  the   mainstream  pop.   -­‐ This  is  a  reflection  of  racial  segregation  in  American  culture;  most  white,  middle   class  Americans  were  simply  unaware  of  most  aspects  of  black  cul ture.   -­‐ However,  migration  of  the  African  Americans  helped  to  integrate  regional  African -­‐ American  pop  styles  into  the  American  cultural  mainstream.   -­‐ After  WWI,  blues  enjoyed  several  years  of  popularity  with  mainstream  white  pop   listeners,  in  particular  the  sheet  music  of  W.C.  Handy  whose  “Memphis  Blues”  and   “St.  Louis  Blues”  sold  well  internationally.   -­‐ The  history  of  selling  blues  record  can  be  traced  to  the  1923  million -­‐selling  song   “Down  Hearted  Blues”  sung  by  Bessie  Smith.  However,  her  career  began  to  fade  a s   blues  fell  of  the  commercial  radar.   -­‐ Many  blues  recording  exist  because  record  companies  scoured  the  South  trying  to   find  new  rural  blues  artists  who  might  repeat  Bessie  Smith’s  success.  One  example  is   Robert  Johnson,  whose  1936 -­‐37  recordings  become  enorm ously  influential  on  rock   guitarists  in  the  60s.   -­‐ Johnson  is  also  a  performer  who  sang  to  the  accompaniment  of  his  own  acoustic   guitar  playing.   -­‐ This  allows  the  artist  to  add  extra  beats  or  measures  as  the  spirit  moved  them.  (ex.   Cross  Roads  Blues  1936)   -­‐ As  African  Americans  migrated  to  urban  areas,  blue  musicians  moved  into  city  bars   and  clubs  forming  combos  using  electric  guitars,  bass,  piano,  drums  and  harmonica.   -­‐ While  much  of  the  development  of  the  development  of  rhythm  and  blues  during   1940s  remained  regional  and  outside  of  the  pop  stream,  Louis  Jordan  and  his   Tympany  Five  became  popular
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