MUSC 2140 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Sound Film, Whole Tone Scale, Word Jazz

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History of Jazz Unit 2
New York Jazz in the 1920s
Music in this part:
- ChangesPaul Whiteman
- CopenhagenFletcher Henderson
- Youe Got to Be Modeisti—James P. Johnson
- Black and Tan FantasyDuke Ellington
Introduction
- In the 1920s, NYC was a thriving centre of commerce and culture; a blend of which is still
potent today
- Swing was introduced here and at this time
- Duke Elligtos aee stated out hee.
Musical Terms:
- Stop-time: when the ensemble plays a short chord at brief intervals and the soloist
improvises with just these interruptions from the band prodding him on. It is open-ended,
lasting as long as the musicians want.
- Dynamics: In music, dynamics normally refers to the volume of a composition. It is
relative and do not indicate specific volume levels.
- Backbeat: A sharp rhythmic accent on the second and fourth beats of a measure in 4/4
time, characteristic of rock music.
- Brass mutes: a device fitted to a musical instrument to alter the sound produced, by
affecting the timbre, reducing the volume, or, most commonly, both
New York in the 1920s
- Arabian Nights:
o NYC seed as the fous fo jazzs eolutio fo the late 9s to the peset
o Neal all geat jazz usiias had to go to NYC to eet a geuie, eduig
suess
o  sphees of ifluee otiute to NYCs etalit i these eal eas:
commercial: the outs etetaiet ifastutue i.e. oet halls
and theatres, museums and galleries, radio and television,
newspapers/magazines, book publishers, record labels, and all
accompanying agents/publicists)
sociological: The Great Migration from South to North was in correlation
with an East-West emigration from Europe to the US. Most of the major
figures in jazz history who were not African American derived from
immigrant families that originated in Italy, Ireland, Germany, and Russia.
An alliance b/w black musicians and Jewish songwriters helped define jazz
for 3 decades
pentatonic scale = 5 note scale (C, D, E, G, A)
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musical: large bands and orchestrations were developed. Influx of jazz
musicians helped to define the growing enthusiasm for ballroom dancing
which created a demand for elegant orchestras (the first important big
bands).
Duke Ellington arrived in NYC in 1923 for the first time and
elaied Wh, it is just like the Aaia Nights! upo seeig the
lights and hearing the music
- Transformations:
o Recordings, radio, and movies were refined in ways that forever changed the
customs and habits of American lives.
o Development of electrical recordings in 1925 as a replacement for the technology
of acoustical recording
This alloed fo a stuig fidelit that espeiall eefited jazz, ith its
dus ad als ad itiatel etied id istuets.
o Radio became more popular in 1921 with the development of the carbon
microphone and the condenser microphone. NBC and CBS united the nation with
simultaneous broadcasts.
This allowed entertainment seekers to stay home as people grew
emotionally attached to broadcasts or collecting records
o In 1927 Warner Bros. Introduced the 1st feature film with synchronized dialogue
(adaptation of a Broadway play The Jazz Singer)
o Nightlife had an unintended boost under prohibition
o Within the year, the country was pockmarked with tens of thousands of illicit
saloons (speakeasies). Only the most talented musicians were hired to compete
against other saloons.
Jazz as suited ell to a idust that euied usi to flo as lieall
as ee
improvisers could spin an infinite number of variations based on blues and
pop songs.
Until it was repealed in 1932, prohibition provided a lot of work.
Dance, Bands, and Jazz
- Jazz was popular music until the 1940s (it became mainstream popular by the mid-1930s)
- It was played for social dancers
- In order to be a successful jazz musician, you had to be able to keep dancers on the floor
- Fletcher Henderson (18971952)
o He was a bandleader in NYC who looked to Whiteman for inspiration to emulate
his sound and diverse repertory as well as his public success
o He was an unassuming, soft-spoken man who originally had no allegiance to jazz.
o Grew up in a middle-class Georgia home with parents who distained jazz.
o After moving to NYC in 1920 for postgraduate study in chemistry, he learned to
play piano well enough to record with Ethel Waters and Bessie Smith and later
organized dance bands for nightclubs and ballrooms.
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o He ega okig at the ‘oselad Balloo i 9 NYCs peeiet dae
place). He offered polished and conventional dance music (i.e. waltzes and fox-
trots) and had access to the best black musicians despite working in exclusively
white venues
One such musician was Coleman Hawkins (a tenor saxophonist)
Another was Louis Armstrong (trumpet)
o By 1926, his band was regarded as the best jazz orchestra anywhere. This was not
so by the following year when Duke Ellington and other bandleaders elaborated
o Hedesos appoah.
o His influence among musicians increased during the 1930s as he produced many
compositions and arrangements that helped to define big-band music in the Swing
Era.
- Don Redman (1900-1964)
o He haged his ohestatio stle to aoodate Astogs daring style
hih had the authoit of swing, the power of blues, and the improvisational
logi of a o stotelle.
o ‘edas itig took o a oadig dietess ad shape hthi gait.
He also used breaks and popular melodies, which Armstrong employed in the Hot
Five sessions he initiated after his year with Henderson.
o ‘edas itig lauhed ig-band jazz and also seed a lik / Kig Olies
Jazz Bad 9 ad Astogs seial Hot Fie 9
- Copenhagen (Fletcher Henderson recording, composition by Charlie Davis)
o Don Redman added his own variations to the piece, including orchestrated
polyphony, block-chord harmonies, brief breaks, hot solos, old-fashioned two-
beat dance rhythms, and sectional call and response.
o It combined 12 bar blues with 16 bar ragtime strains
Band had 11 players (2 trumpet, 1 trombone, 3 clarinets (who doubled as
2 altos and 1 tenor), tuba, banjo, piano, and drums
New Orleans jazz typically had 5-6 players
o I noticed: Repeating melody, sectional call and response, breaks, solos,
homophonic texture vs. polyphonic in New Orleans
- Art Hickman (18861930)
o Was a pianist, drummer, and songwriter who discovered jazz in the honkytonks of
the Barbary Coast, SF.
Negoes playig it. Eye shades, sleeves up, cigas i outh. Gi ad liuo ad soke ad filth.
But usic!
Art Hickman
o He organized a dance band (which included 2 saxophonists) in 1913. He assigned
them prominent roles which created a smoother sound that the brass-heavy
ensembles from New Orleans jazz and marching bands.
His success with adding saxophones to his band established saxophones as
an abiding component in the jazz ensemble
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