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Lecture 6

MUSC 2150 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Grand Funk Railroad, Rufus Thomas, Steve Winwood

Course Code
MUSC 2150
Shannon Carter

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C H A P T E R 4
The Beatles And The British Invasion
Chapter Study Outline
I.British Pop between 1964 and 1966
A. American business taken by storm in early 1964 by The Beatles
B. An American fad for British music ensued
C. Two important strains of the story
1. Chronicle of British pop
2. Influence of British pop on American pop
II. British Pop in the Late 1950s and Early 1960s
. Prior to 1964, Britain was considered a secondary force in pop music
1. UK consumed American music
2. Result of American involvement in WW II
A. Influence of large companies
1. British labels licensed music from American majors and independents
2. Few independent radio stations and labels
3. Movies and tours provided access to American styles
B. History of British interest in American music includes folk and jazz
1. "Trad" jazz
2. Skiffle
C. Early British rock
1. Teen-idols
2. Cliff Richard
III. The Beatles as Students of American Pop, 19601963
. Early years
1. Formed out of the skiffle-based Quarrymen
2. Among the first generation of musicians who listened to rock as youth
3. Began performing live actively in 1960
A. 196062
1. Hamburg
a. Played six- and seven-hour evenings
b. Refined performing skills and repertoire
. Played at the Cavern nearly 300 times through 1962
a. Like Hamburg, a port city with exposure to American pop
b. Met future manager Brian Epstein in 1961
c. Secured Parlophone recording contract in 1962
d. First single ("Love Me Do") goes to 17 on British charts
e. Paved the way for other "Mersey Beat" acts
B. Beatle Influences
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Beatles learned from cover songs performed in early period
Influenced by first-wave rockers
. Elvis Presley
a. Chuck Berry
b. Little Richard
Influenced by producer-centered styles
. Leiber and Stoller
a. Phil Spector
b. Motown
IV. Beatlemania, 196366
. Success in England in 1963
Two high-profile television performances
Four consecutive hits
Led wave of British-based hits in England
A. Success in America in 1964
Performed on Ed Sullivan's TV show in February
Thirty Top Ten pop hits between 1964 and 1966
All studio albums went to #1 in both the UK and the United States
Feature films
. Hard Day's Night (1964)
a. Help! (1965)
Controversy over "bigger than Jesus" remark in 1966
Final public concert in San Francisco, August 1966
B. Musical development, 196466
Imitated and extended American models in early music
Used songwriting techniques from Brill Building, 19631964
. Found variety in solving compositional "problems" in new ways
a. "I Want to Hold Your Hand"
Moved from craft to artistic approach, 196466
. Experimented with studio effects, stylistic juxtapositions, timbre, and structure
a. "Tomorrow Never Knows"
Importance of lyrics
. Teenage love in early years
a. Unconventional in later music
i. Self-confidence
ii. Sexual frustration
iii. Alienation
Stylistic range
. Widens in 1965 with "Help!"
a. Novel instrumentation
b. Stylistic eclecticism
V. The British Invade
. Beatles led the surge of British music to the United States in 1964
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Groups were British, played guitars, and had long hair
Broad stylistic range
Had many hits on the U.S. charts between 1964 and 1966
Two strains, modeled after Beatles and Stones
A. First wave of Beatles-type bands, 1964
Gerry and the Pacemakers
Dave Clark Five
Billy J. Kramer and the Dakotas
B. Second wave of Beatles-type bands, 1965
Herman's Hermits
Freddy and the Dreamers
VI. The Rolling Stones and the British Blues Revival
. Bad boys, in contrast to the charming, cute Beatles-type image
A. Drew on tradition of Chicago electric blues from 1950s
B. London-based enthusiasm for collecting and performing American blues
C. Rolling Stones, 196266
Formed by guitarist Brian Jones as a blues band
Managed by Andrew Loog Oldham and Eric Easton, 1963
Started move toward pop in 1963
Early recordings
. Covered songs by American artists
a. "I Wanna Be Your Man" by Lennon and McCartney
b. Jagger and Richards achieve success as songwriters in 1964
Did not achieve widespread success in America until 1965
Preferred contrasting verse-chorus form, not The Beatles' AABA
D. Yardbirds
Guitarist Eric Clapton was devoted to blues and left after band's use of studio
Guitarist Jeff Beck had an experimental approach
Recorded in Chicago at Chess studios
Jimmy Page joined as bassist and then guitarist
E. Animals
Earned their reputation through their wild stage act
"House of the Rising Sun" (1964)
Bassist Chas Chandler became manager for Jimi Hendrix in 1966
F. Other blues-based bands
G. Other British groups did not fit into Beatles/Stones categories
. Formed in 1963
a. Aggressive pop approach
. "You Really Got Me" (1964)
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