Unit 7 – emergence of soul
Covach 217-232 Covach 233-247
- Development of African-American music through the 1960s
- Motown label is primary source of black pop – adapts Brill-Building method of music
oLargely criticized for selling out to white American pop audience
•required listeningBaby Love – The Supremes
•required listeningThe Way You Do the Things You Do – The Temptations
•Nowhere to Run – Martha and the Vandellas
required listening Baby Love by the Supremes, produced by Brian Holland, Lamont Dozier, and Edward Holland Jr.
-The song is an example of Motown pop.
-Vibraphone and “stomping boards” – sound made by smaking 2x4s together
oEssentially a metal xylophone with the ability to sustain notes
oCompare it with clapping hands
-Call and response and “oh” in back ground vocals comes from gospel via doo-wop and blues
-Soft light vocal timbre
-Note difference in sexual politics between temptations and Supremes lyrics
oMales write about sex, females about romantic or lost love
Required listening The Way You Do the Things You Do by the Temptations, produced by Smokey Robinson, and
follow along with the listening guide.
-This song is Motown pop.
-Listen to new sounds like horn and sax
-Note “ooo” in backup vocals and call and response
-Listen to improvisatory vocals in coda
oCoda is a short epilogue tacked onto the song
oOften called “outro”
-Timbre is smooth and round
Nowhere To Run by Martha and the Vandellas, produced by Holland, Dozier, and Holland.
-This song is an example of Motown pop, though it also called Detroit soul.
-Vocals are improvisatory and use rough, powerful timbre – stronger link to gospel
-Sounds more like southern soul (motion that Motown sold out to white pop)
Sittin’ on the Dock of the Bay by Otis Redding.
-This song is an example southern soul.
-No backup singers – typical of STAX soul
oTended to use same studio band (Booker T and MGs) which helped create a distinctive sound
-Vocal timber is blend of smooth and rough
-Added 3-4 horns to songs – became known as “Memphis horns”
oNormally start in unison and then break into harmony later
Required listeningIn the Midnight Hour by Wilson Pickett and follow along with the listening guide.