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Nutrition (1)
NUTR 1010 (1)
Lecture

NUTRITION NOTES

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Department
Nutrition
Course
NUTR 1010
Professor
Andrea Buchholz
Semester
Winter

Description
Nutrition What are plants and animals made of? *macronutrients *micronutrients *water macronutrients Carbohydrates, fat and protein These give us energy They are measured in kilo-calories (kcal) Carbohydrates give you 4 kcal of energy/gram Fat gives you 9 kcal of energy/gram Protein gives you 4 kcal of energy/gram What is a calorie? A unit of energy 1 calorie is the amount of energy it would take to warm 1 gram of water up by 1 degree Celsius Food energy is measured in kilo-calories (kcal) but it’s often just called calories Micronutrients Vitamins and minerals Only need them in small amounts Don’t provide us with any energy but we need them so our body can function They burn energy, control our nerves and muscles and movements, make and maintain bones and blood Water Our bodies need water for EVERYTHING -provides the right environment for; *energy to be burned *our cells to grow *waste transport *our muscles and nerves to function, etc What is a nutritious diet? Adequate – has enough of everything Moderate – doesn’t have TOO MUCH of anything Balanced – contains the right combinations of foods to provide the right amount of nutrients Varied – contains different foods for each day Eattracker.com How Much is Enough? Health professionals in Canada and the usa use the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) -developed by the institutes of medicine - developed by American and Canadian nutrition experts Dietary Reference Intake (refer to powerpoint slide) *Estimated energy requirements - For calculating how many kcals people need *Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges -used to see if you’re getting the right BALANCE of macronutrients ** NEED TO KNOW THE NUMBERS ON THE TABLE IN POWERPOINT SLIDE micronutrients *estimated average requirements -based on SOLID EVIDENCE -meets the needs of 50% of the population - NOT a good goal for individuals -tool for researchers assessing the diet of the population *recommended Dietary Allowances -the RDA will meet the requirements of 97-98% of the population -a goal for individuals *Adequate Intake (AI) -for some nutrients there isn’t enough evidence to set an EAR or an RDA - an adequate intake (AI) is then used -AI=the mean intake of healthy populations – they look at a bunch of people and say your healy and see how much fibre they eat in order to stay healthy -AI is a goal for individuals if an RDA doesn’t exist - example – fibre(helps us prevent chronic diseased but its very difficult to track fibre intake from when your 15 till your 70) *Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) - UL = the highest average daily nutrient intake level that poses NO RISK of adverse health effects -as intake increases above the UL, the risk of potential adverse effect may increase -refers to chronic consumption -used to assess risk of adverse effects in individuals and populations - example –sodium – eating too much salt Review questions 1. Carbohydrate are macronutrients 2. Calories are bad for you – true/false – we need calories because calories are our energy – adequacy and moderation 3. If you wanted to know if you were getting enough iron, which DRI value would you check? a)EAR – what researchers use to look at a big population b) RDA c) UL – all you would know is if you are getting too much Nutrition Last class we talked about: -what is a nutritious diet? -DRIs (EAR, RDA, AI, UL) Choosing a nutritious diet with canada’s food guide What is eating well with canada’s food guide?  Nutrition experts created canada’s food guide based on: -information from the DRIs - foods that Canadians usually eat (how do we take foods Canadians usually eat and make a diet that meets the RDAs?) **need to know the general rules of the servings of certain foods for exams *memorize table *one serving of meat is the side of your palm and the thickness of your baby finger * one lady first is about one cup *one teaspoon is one joint on your thumb *one tablespoon is your whole thumb *one baseball is one cup *a hockey puck is half a cup *an eraser is about an ounce *one golfball is 2 tablespoons **try to have at least 3 out of the 4 food groups at each meal **An 8-12 ounce steak is 3-5 servings **cup of easy mac = 2 servings *full box of kd is 6 servings *small container of yogurt is ½ - ¾ of a serving *glass of orange juice is 2-3 servings; 2 servings = 1 cup *a full bagel is 2 servings but can be as much as 4 servings *bowl of salad can be 2-3 servings How are these foods healthier? *lower in fat, sugar, and salt in all food groups -fewer “empty calories” - low salt – prevent high blood pressure *have dark green and orange vegetables -they have more vitamins – Vitamin A and Folate *have vegetables and fruit more often than juice - they have more fibre and fill you up more *choose whole grains -more ribre and more minerals: magnesium *drink skim, 1% or 2% milk each day -liquid milk has added Vitamin D *select lower fat milk alternatives - cheese is often high in fat and salt *have meat alternatives more often -beans are low in far and high in fibre *have fish twice a week -fish contain long chain omega-3 fatty acids. They healthiest fats around! Other tips *choose 2-3 tbsps vegetable oils like canola or olive oil or soft tub margarine *avoid using hard fats like butter, hard margarine, lard or shortening *enjoy a VARIETY of foods *drink water which food is healthier? Whole grain bread vs pasta – whole grain bread Apple vs broccoli – broccoli (because its dark green) Milk vs cheese – milk (lower in fat and salt) Steak vs beans – beans (higher in fibre and have a lot of vitamins and minerals) Oil vs butter – oil The healthy plate is great because… *if you follow it for 2 meals per day, you will magically follow eating well with canada’s food guide *you get: -4 servings of vegetables plus 2 servings fruit -2-4 servings of grains -2 servings of meats or alternatives -2 servings of milk and alternatives *add breakfast (maybe cereal, with fruit and milk) and you’ve got it all The downside is: *mixed dishes are confusing to sort out (i.e. pizza, premade pasta/sandwiches, etc) Nutrition Making Healthier Choices at Home and Away Learn how to make healthier choices -at the grocery store -when eating out Reading Food Labels Nutrition Labeling on Foods includes: -the nutrition facts table - list of ingredients in the food -sometimes nutrition claims The nutrition facts table *your BEST source of information -what should I look for? -what does it mean? **Always want to look at the serving size is this the serving size that I’m going to eat? What is the % daily value *use RDAs to see if you’re meeting your goals *DRIs are used to tell if our diet is adequate or not • Based on a 2000kcal diet • NOT based on the DRIs – based on outdated values • Not useful to use as a goal • Not useful for tracking your intake • BUT it can help with our next task... Reading the nutrition facts table • The Nutrition facts table can tell us: 1. Which food is a healthier choice when we compare two foods 2. If a food is a healthy choice based on some handy rules of thumb What to look at More is better: -fibre -vitamins -minerals Less is better: -fat -saturated and trans fat -sodium -sugar *first look at the serving size *if you have 2 grams of fibre per slice or more that’s good; if there’s less than 2 grams of fibre per slice then it’s not cutting it How to tell if a food is healthy *look at the daily value *use these handy rules of thumb:  5% or less is low -You want fat, saturated fat, and sodium to be low  15% or more is high -You want fibre, vitamins, and minerals to be high *for cereals and granola bars – 4 grams or more of fibre and 8 grams or less of sugar List of ingredients  All of the ingredients for a food are listed by weight  The ingredient that is in the largest amount is listed first  i.e. a granola-type snack bar: “flour, sugar, whole oats, water, hydrogenated vegetable oil, honey, milk, powder, wheat bran” *the order of ingredients listed is in order of most amount to least amount Nutrition Claims *they are:  found only on some food products  often on the front of food packages  a quick and easy way to get information about a food (but check the Nutrition Facts for complete information)  i.e. sugar-free, no sugar added, trans fatty acid free, low calorie, low fat, high source or dietary fibre *it’s always a good idea to look at the nutrition facts table Tips for Healthy Eating Out *plan ahead *many chain restaurants have nutrition information available online; many of the large chain restaurants have it online *avoid:  anything deep fried  creamy soups or sauces, foods with a lot of cheese  salad dressing overload -order dressings on the side  sweet drinks and desserts *go for:  grilled lean meats like chicken breast, filet mignon, pork chop  plain baked potato and steamed veggies for sides  Skim milk in coffee drinks – skip the whip  Vegetarian meals with whole grains and less cheese  If you’re going to indulge • Make it a once-in-a-while treat • Only eat half – Share with a friend – Have half packed up before you get your plate • Share 1 dessert between MANY friends • Choose 1 healthy part and 1 indulgence Nutrition heartburn  aka gastroesophageal reflus disease (gerd)  chyme from the stomach in the esophagus causes  genetics  physical damage  pregnancy  hiatal hernia*  overweight/obesity Dietary/lifestyle Contributors • Chemically affect muscle tone of the digestive tract/Lower Esophageal Sphincter – high fat foods – digested slowly – Smoking – alcohol – spicy foods – Caffeine what do to  avoid high fat, spicy meals  avoid caffeine and alcohol  eat small meals  drink between meals, not with meals  don't lie down for at least 1 hour after a meal Intolerances and Allergies  intolerance = inability to properly digest a food or nutrient -lactose intolerance  allergy = foods cause an immune response Lactose intolerance  75% of people world wide -5% of Europeans, 90% of some African populations  Lactase - enzyme in the brush border -all babies have the ability to make it, some lose the ability to make it as adults lactose intolerance - la
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