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Lecture 9

NUTR 1010 Lecture 9: Carbohydrates

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NUTR 1010
Andrea Buchholz

Wednesday, January 27, 2016 Carbohydrates What are Carbs? - All Carbohydrates are made of… • Sugar molecules - Simple carbohydrates (aka sugars) • One (monosaccharide) or two (disaccharide) sugar molecules - Complex carbohydrates (aka polysaccharides) Many monosaccharide molecules strung together • • Starch, fibre - Meat, fish, poultry and fats have NO Carbohydrate Carbohydrate Terminology - Suffix- ose means sugar • GlucOSE, fructOSE, dextrOSE - Saccharide = sugar molecule • Mono-saccharide = 1 sugar molecule • Di-saccharide = 2 sugar molecules • Poly-saccharide = LOTS of sugar molecules Monosaccharides - Free glucose and fructose found naturally - Galactose only found only in disaccharides or polysaccharides - Monosaccharides are often added to processed foods 1 Wednesday, January 27, 2016 The Disaccharides - Sucrose = Table sugar - Ingredient “Sugar” = sucrose - naturally found in malted beverages Starches - a class of polysaccharides - LONG strings of monosaccharides • Straight - amylose • Branched - amylopectin - Storage form of carbohydrates for plants - Lots of starch in grains, potatoes, legumes Fibre - a class of polysaccharides - Ofen made of glucose but can other monosaccharides - Provide structure to the leaves, stems and seeds of plants - Lots in whole grains, vegetables, fruit and legumes Types of Fibre Soluble Fibre - absorb water - often used as gelling agents or thickeners - pectins, gums, mucilages - High in oatmeal, seaweed, oat bran, barley, apples, legumes 2 Wednesday, January 27, 2016 Insoluble Fibre - Dont absorb water - Give stiff structure to plants - Cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin - Found in whole grains, nuts, fruit skin and seeds Carbohydrate Digestion - Starts in the mouth — salivary amylase • Salivary amylase breaks starch into glucose and smaller polysaccharides - No carbohydrate digestion happens in the stomach - Small intestine: • Pancreatic amylase • starch — glucose maltose • Sucrase — sucrose — glucose and fructose • Maltase — maltose — 2 glucose molecules • Lactase — lactose — glucose and galactose Carbohydrate absorption - Monosaccharides — intestinal cells — blood - The blood delivers them to the liver • All monosaccharides — processed by liver - Glucose can be burned for energy or stored as glycogen Glycogen - Animals store carbohydrate as glycogen - Found in liver and muscles 3 Wednesday, January 27, 2016 - Liver — keeps blood glucose levels stable - Muscles — fast energy for exercise - Not a dietary source of carbohydrate What does CHO do? - Glucose and glycogen provide energy for physical activity - “Hitting the wall” — very sudden. Feel very weak. Blood sugar drops very fast. Almost lose consciousness - Spare protein • If your body is low on glucose, glycogen can be turned into glucose via gluconeogensis • Your body needs protein to make • Organs, muscle, skin, enzymes, hormones, blood, EVERYTHING - Your body will steal protein from blood, organs and muscle to make glucose if necessary - Allows for the breakdown of fat - Your body can’t metabolize fat without a little bit of carbs to get it started - Prevent Ketosis • If you eat too little carbs, theres not enough to feed your brain and red blood cells • You start making ketone bodies out of fat Diabetes History - Too much glucose in the blood - First described in 1500 BC • In Egypt = Great emptying of urine • In India - Sweet urine that attracts ants - In 250 BC the Greeks described as it as “the melting of flesh and limbs into urine” 4 Wednesday, January 27, 2016 Canadian Diabetes Rsearch - Discoveries in the late 1700s to 1800s • Diets of meat or starvation diets with whiskey and black coffee kept people with diabetes from dying • Removing the pancreas of dogs and cows What is Insulin? - A hormone secreted into the blood by the pancreas - Works with glucagon to control blood glucose What is Glucagon? - Another hormone secreted by the pancreas Type 1 Diabetes - 10% of cases in Canada - An autoimmune disease - Your immune systems attacks the cells of the pancreas - No insulin - Insulin injections are required for life - Often in children, but can happen any time Type 2 Diabetes - 90% of cases in Canada - Usually seen in older adults - Insulin resistance and not enough insulin 5 Wednesday, January 27, 2016 - Previously known as adult-onset diabetes, but is being diagnosed more often in adults - Causes by lifestyle and environment, along with f
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