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Fluids and Electrolytes.docx

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NUTR 1010
Jess Haines

Fluids and Electrolytes What Are Fluids Fluid: molecules that are able to move freely and are changeable; adapt to shape of containers; fluid composition is critical for your body’s ability to function; between 50% and 70% of our body weight is fluid. Intracellular fluid: two thirds of our body fluid is held within the walls of our cells; when our cells lose fluid they shrink and die. Extracellular fluid: remaining third of our body fluids that flow outside the cells; three types - 1) Tissue fluid: flows between the cells that make up a particular organ (such as muscle fibres or the liver) 2) Plasma: extracellular fluid that causes your blood to drip; it is the liquid portion of blood; carries red blood cells through vessels. 3) Digestive juices: secreted by cells in the pancreas, stomach and small intestine. Electrolytes: body fluids are made of water with electrolytes dissolved in it; mineral salts. Ions: electrically charged particles. SWEATING Major Electrolytes - Sodium - Potassium - Chloride - Phosphorus - Calcium What Do Fluids Do? 1) Dissolve and transport substances: transports all water-soluble substances; carbohydrates, amino acids, minerals, medication; water insoluable substances such as fat are transported with the help of water soluble proteins. 2) Account for blood volume: you need enough blood volume to maintain healthy fluid levels; this makes it possible for the blood transport of oxygen, nutrients and hormones. 3) Help maintain body temperature: water isn’t easy to heat; being made of mostly water helps keep us cool. 4) Protects and lubricates our tissues: cerebrospinal fluid cushions the brain and spinal cord; amnionic fluid protects a fetus; creates saliva, tears and mucus. What Do Electrolytes Do? - Help regulate fluid balance through osmosis; they draw water towards areas where they are concentrated; this continues until the solutes are equal on both sides of the cell membrane. - Ions are the sparks that stimulate nerves and causes muscle contractions; critical to body functioning. How Do We Lose Water - Urine - Feces Insensible water loss: evaporation, sweat, breath Thirst Hypothalamus: cluster of nerve cells in this part of the brain tell us we are thirsty; stimulate d by: - High concentrations of salt or other dissolved substance in our blood. - Low blood volume or blood pressure - Dryness in the mouth *problem: we drink until we are not thirsty but this is often not enough to achieve fluid balance. How Do We Get Fluids? - Chemical reactions in the body; metabolic water: formed by breakdown of fat, carbs and protein, adenosine triphosphate (ATP); makes up 10-15% of our daily water needs. - Food and beverages. - Making triglyceride and peptide bones creates water also.
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