NUTR 1010 Lecture Notes - Extracellular Fluid, Fluid Compartments, Potassium Chloride

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Published on 14 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Nutrition
Course
NUTR 1010
Professor
Fluids and Electrolytes
What Are Fluids
Fluid: molecules that are able to move freely and are changeable; adapt to shape of containers; fluid composition is
critical for your body’s ability to function; between 50% and 70% of our body weight is fluid.
Intracellular fluid: two thirds of our body fluid is held within the walls of our cells; when our cells lose fluid they shrink
and die.
Extracellular fluid: remaining third of our body fluids that flow outside the cells; three types -
1) Tissue fluid: flows between the cells that make up a particular organ (such as muscle fibres or the liver)
2) Plasma: extracellular fluid that causes your blood to drip; it is the liquid portion of blood; carries red blood cells
through vessels.
3) Digestive juices: secreted by cells in the pancreas, stomach and small intestine.
Electrolytes: body fluids are made of water with electrolytes dissolved in it; mineral salts.
Ions: electrically charged particles.
SWEATING
Major Electrolytes
- Sodium
- Potassium
- Chloride
- Phosphorus
- Calcium
What Do Fluids Do?
1) Dissolve and transport
substances: transports all
water-soluble substances;
carbohydrates, amino acids,
minerals, medication; water
insoluable substances such as
fat are transported with the
help of water soluble proteins.
2) Account for blood volume: you
need enough blood volume to
maintain healthy fluid levels;
this makes it possible for the blood transport of oxygen, nutrients and hormones.
3) Help maintain body temperature: water isn’t easy to heat; being made of mostly water helps keep us cool.
4) Protects and lubricates our tissues: cerebrospinal fluid cushions the brain and spinal cord; amnionic fluid
protects a fetus; creates saliva, tears and mucus.
What Do Electrolytes Do?
- Help regulate fluid balance through osmosis; they draw water towards areas where they are concentrated; this
continues until the solutes are equal on both sides of the cell membrane.
- Ions are the sparks that stimulate nerves and causes muscle contractions; critical to body functioning.
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Document Summary

Fluid: molecules that are able to move freely and are changeable; adapt to shape of containers; fluid composition is critical for your body"s ability to function; between 50% and 70% of our body weight is fluid. Intracellular fluid: two thirds of our body fluid is held within the walls of our cells; when our cells lose fluid they shrink and die. Electrolytes: body fluids are made of water with electrolytes dissolved in it; mineral salts. Help regulate fluid balance through osmosis; they draw water towards areas where they are concentrated; this continues until the solutes are equal on both sides of the cell membrane. Ions are the sparks that stimulate nerves and causes muscle contractions; critical to body functioning. Hypothalamus: cluster of nerve cells in this part of the brain tell us we are thirsty; stimulate d by: High concentrations of salt or other dissolved substance in our blood.

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