NUTR 1010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Omega-6 Fatty Acid, Canola, Peanut Butter

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Published on 14 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Nutrition
Course
NUTR 1010
Professor
Week Four October 1st, 2012
LIPIDS
Lipids are a large group of molecules that
are not soluble in water and all are non-
polar molecules.
LIPIDS WE EAT
Triglycerides
- 95% of our dietary lipid; usually
what it means when we say “fat”
- We eat triglycerides and store our
body fat as triglycerides
- Made of 1 glycerol molecule
Fatty Acids
- Different fatty acids give
triglycerides different properties
Lengths
Length affects how it is digested and
processed in the body; its function in the
body, and its properties before/when you
eat it; ex. Lauric acid fat in chocolate that
makes it feel nice in your mouth, medium
length.
Short chain: fewer than 6 carbon atoms
Medium chain: 6-12 carbon
Long chain: 14 or more carbons
Saturation
Saturated fats (SFA) have no double bonds, while unsaturated fats have 1 or more double bonds (which removes one of
the hydrogen molecules).
Monounsaturated (mufa) = 1 double bond Polyunsaturated (pufa) = 2 or more double bonds
- Affects whether food is a solid or liquid at room temperature (butter is very saturated); how they are processed in
the body (poly, do not stack because of the bonds, so molecules can shift around; liquid at room temp); health.
Foods with
Saturated Fats: all animal foods, ice cream, butter, tropical oils (coconut oil).
Monounsaturated: olive oil, canola oil.
Polyunsaturated: any vegetable oil, canola, safflower, corn oil, fish, and nuts; omega 3.
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Where is the double bond?
- The bond closest to the end of the fatty acid
o Omega end
o This bond affects how your body uses the fat.
- Omega 3 fatty acids = double bond at the third carbon
from the end.
- Omega 6 fatty acids = double at the 6th carbon
Shape
Cis: hydrogren molecules on the same side as the double
bond, creating a kink; most fats in our diet are in the Cis
shape
Trans: hydrogen molecules on opposite sides; even though it
has double bond, acts as though it doesn’t; trans fats can pack tightly like saturated fats and are hard at room temp; is
written on food labels while cis is not (assumed to be in everthing); found in milk, cheese, and beef; hydrogenated fats:
Crisco, chips, margarine, fries, peanut butter.
Name your fatty acid* they are given common names and numerical notations. Ex. 18:2 -3
Phospholipids
Consists of a glycerol backbone with two fatty acids
and a compound that contains phosphate.
Sterols
A large group of hydrophobic compounds; found in
plant and animals; most common one in animals:
cholesterol.
Plant sterols are good for heart health; body absorbs
sterols instead of cholesterol; functional food helps
fight disease.
FAT DIGESTION
Mouth: chewing and lingual lipase
Stomach: churning into small droplets, gastric lipase
Small intestine: bile emulsifies fats into small droplets (micelles); pancreatic lipases break fatty acids off of glycerol; free
fatty acids and Mono glycerides
FAT ABSORPTION
Lipids are not soluble in water, so digesting them requires the help of
digestive enzymes from pancreas and bile from gall bladder; cells of
intestinal wall secrete hormone (CCK) which causes the gallbladder to
contract and release bile into the duodenum (small intestine); it slows
down the movement while enzymes break the lipids down; micelles
transport the products to the enterocytes of the small intestine.
broken down products, along with free chloestoral are trapped in the
micelle, then they are transported to the intestinal mucosal cells where
they are absorbed.
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Document Summary

Lipids are a large group of molecules that are not soluble in water and all are non- polar molecules. Triglycerides what it means when we say fat body fat as triglycerides. Length affects how it is digested and processed in the body; its function in the body, and its properties before/when you eat it; ex. Lauric acid fat in chocolate that makes it feel nice in your mouth, medium length. Saturated fats (sfa) have no double bonds, while unsaturated fats have 1 or more double bonds (which removes one of the hydrogen molecules). Affects whether food is a solid or liquid at room temperature (butter is very saturated); how they are processed in. Polyunsaturated (pufa) = 2 or more double bonds the body (poly, do not stack because of the bonds, so molecules can shift around; liquid at room temp); health. Saturated fats: all animal foods, ice cream, butter, tropical oils (coconut oil).

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