Class Notes (809,120)
Canada (493,535)
Nutrition (888)
NUTR 1010 (437)
Lecture 3

NUTRITION week 3 friday.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph
NUTR 1010
Jess Haines

NUTRITION Sept 21/2012 Midterm #1: - 40 multiple choice - Only what was talked about in class - Close book - Up until next Wednesday Carbohydrates - Macronutrients; give us energy - Means hydrated carbon; consists of carbon hydrogen and oxygen; CHO means carbohydrate. - Found in all plant foods and milk - Also found in foods that are not found in the food groups - Meat fish poultry and fats have no carbs - Eggs and cheese have very little CHO. - Made of sugar molecules Types of carbohydrates Simple (sugars): - Suffix –ose means sugar ( glucose, fructose, dextrose) - Saccharide = sugar molecule (mono, di, poly) Monosaccharides* Glucose: most abundant sugar in our diet; good energy source; found naturally Fructose: sweetest sugar; found in fruit; found naturally Galactose: does not occur alone in foods; binds with glucose to form lactose; not found alone in nature; *often added to processed foods Disacchrides Lactose: glucose + galactose (milk sugar) Maltose: glucose + glucose (join in food to form starch; by product of fermentation of grains; beer and wine) Sucrose: glucose + fructose ( found in sugar cane, and honey; table sugar), most common disaccharide. Complex: Starches - Storage form of carbs for plants - Long strings of glucose - Straight = amylose - Branched = amylopectin - Lots of starch in grains, potatoes, legumes Wheat kernel: Endosperm: makes up 83% of kernel, energy storage, all starch Bran: makes up 14% Germ: makes up 3% Fibre - Provide structure to the leaves, stems and seeds of plants - Can’t be digested by humans - Can be digested by the bacteria in the gut - Often made of glucose but can be other monosaccharaides. TYPES OF FIBRE Insoluble Fibre Soluble fibre - Don’t absorb water - Absorb water - Give stiff structure to plants - Often used as gelling agents - Cellulose, hemicellulose, ligin - Pectins, gums, mucilages - Found in whole grains, vegetables. - High in oatmeal, prunes, barley, apples, legumes Carbohydrate Digestion Starts in the mouth; salivary amylase – salivary amylase breaks starch into glucose and smaller polysaccharides; not much happens in the stomach. Small intestine: Pancreatic amylase: Starch->glucose and maltose Sucrose – sucrose -> glucose + fructose Maltase – maltose -> glucose + glucose Lactase – lactose -> glucose + galactose Carbohydrate Absorption Monosaccarides->intestinal cells->blood, then blood delievers them to the liver: all monosaccharides -> glucose. - Glucose can be burned for energy or we can store it as glycogen. GLYCOGEN - Animals store glucose as glycogen - Fonud in liver and muscles - Liver keeps blood glucose levels stable - Muscles, fast energy for exercise - Not a dietary source. What do carbohydrates do? - Provides the quickest source of fuel - Glucose and glycogen provide energy for exercise - The body regulates blood glucose levels closesly to make sure we have enough - Spare protein o If ur body is low on glucose protein can be turned into glucose vida gluconeogenesis o Your body needs protein to make organs, muscle, skin, enzyemes, hormones, blood, everything. o Your body will steal protein from blood, organs and muscle to make gluclose - Prevents ketoacidosis o If you eat too little cho your brain starts to starve o You start making ketone bodies out of fat; your brain can burn these for energy but they are acids so they riase blood acidity; too much acid can kill you Low CHO diets - Some involve ketosis to increase fat burning How much CHO do I need? The DRIs – 130g to prevent ketosis o One glass of milk, cereal, banana, a sandwhich,carrots How much makes a healthy diet? AMDRs: 45-65% of your calories should come from CHO For a 2000 kcal diet: 45% of 2000 = 900kcal /4g per kcal Are Carbs Healthy Natural Sugars: found in raw foods; are in fruit (fructose, glucose and sucrose), milk and milk produces (lactose); these foods contain fibre, vitamins and minerals; natural sugars are related to better health. Added sugars: added during food processing, or at the table; table sugar (sucrose), high fructose corn syrup (fructose and glucose), honey (fructose), molasses, glucose, dextrose. - Empty calories; no nutrients associated with them - High added sugar consumption is related to: a low quality diet (less vitamins and minerals), obesity, highblood cholesterol levels, and low insulin sensitivity. Less than 25% of kcals should come from sugar according to the DRI’s, while the World Health Organization says that less than 10% of that should be from added sugars. Sweeteners contain sugar alcohols and cyclamate (fake sugar); these upset the GI tract. Aspartame: made of 2 amino acids and found in sugar free food Acesulfame: in sugar free or diet products with other sweetners. Sucralose (splenda): found in sugar free foods, it is safe. Starch Pros: great source of energy, needed by athletes for glycogen stores Cons: raises
More Less

Related notes for NUTR 1010

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.