NUTR 1010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: High Fructose Corn Syrup, Blood Sugar, World Health Organization

11 views5 pages
Published on 14 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Nutrition
Course
NUTR 1010
Professor
NUTRITION
Sept 21/2012
Midterm #1:
- 40 multiple choice
- Only what was talked about in class
- Close book
- Up until next Wednesday
Carbohydrates
- Macronutrients; give us energy
- Means hydrated carbon; consists of carbon hydrogen and oxygen; CHO means carbohydrate.
- Found in all plant foods and milk
- Also found in foods that are not found in the food groups
- Meat fish poultry and fats have no carbs
- Eggs and cheese have very little CHO.
- Made of sugar molecules
Types of carbohydrates
Simple (sugars):
- Suffix ose means sugar ( glucose, fructose, dextrose)
- Saccharide = sugar molecule (mono, di, poly)
Monosaccharides*
Glucose: most abundant sugar in our diet; good energy source; found naturally
Fructose: sweetest sugar; found in fruit; found naturally
Galactose: does not occur alone in foods; binds with glucose to form lactose; not found alone in nature;
*often added to processed foods
Disacchrides
Lactose: glucose + galactose (milk sugar)
Maltose: glucose + glucose (join in food to form starch; by product of fermentation of grains; beer and wine)
Sucrose: glucose + fructose ( found in sugar cane, and honey; table sugar), most common disaccharide.
Complex:
Starches
- Storage form of carbs for plants
- Long strings of glucose
- Straight = amylose
- Branched = amylopectin
- Lots of starch in grains, potatoes, legumes
Wheat kernel:
Endosperm: makes up 83% of kernel, energy storage, all starch
Bran: makes up 14%
Germ: makes up 3%
Fibre
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
- Provide structure to the leaves, stems and seeds of plants
- Can’t be digested by humans
- Can be digested by the bacteria in the gut
- Often made of glucose but can be other monosaccharaides.
TYPES OF FIBRE
Soluble fibre
- Absorb water
- Often used as gelling agents
- Pectins, gums, mucilages
- High in oatmeal, prunes, barley, apples, legumes
Insoluble Fibre
- Don’t absorb water
- Give stiff structure to plants
- Cellulose, hemicellulose, ligin
- Found in whole grains, vegetables.
Carbohydrate Digestion
Starts in the mouth; salivary amylase salivary amylase breaks starch into glucose and smaller polysaccharides; not much happens in
the stomach.
Small intestine:
Pancreatic amylase: Starch->glucose and maltose
Sucrose sucrose -> glucose + fructose
Maltase maltose -> glucose + glucose
Lactase lactose -> glucose + galactose
Carbohydrate Absorption
Monosaccarides->intestinal cells->blood, then blood delievers them to the liver: all monosaccharides -> glucose.
- Glucose can be burned for energy or we can store it as glycogen.
GLYCOGEN
- Animals store glucose as glycogen
- Fonud in liver and muscles
- Liver keeps blood glucose levels stable
- Muscles, fast energy for exercise
- Not a dietary source.
What do carbohydrates do?
- Provides the quickest source of fuel
- Glucose and glycogen provide energy for exercise
- The body regulates blood glucose levels closesly to make sure we have enough
- Spare protein
o If ur body is low on glucose protein can be turned into glucose vida gluconeogenesis
o Your body needs protein to make organs, muscle, skin, enzyemes, hormones, blood, everything.
o Your body will steal protein from blood, organs and muscle to make gluclose
- Prevents ketoacidosis
o If you eat too little cho your brain starts to starve
o You start making ketone bodies out of fat; your brain can burn these for energy but they are acids so they riase blood
acidity; too much acid can kill you
Low CHO diets
- Some involve ketosis to increase fat burning
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Only what was talked about in class. Means hydrated carbon; consists of carbon hydrogen and oxygen; cho means carbohydrate. Also found in foods that are not found in the food groups. Meat fish poultry and fats have no carbs. Eggs and cheese have very little cho. Suffix ose means sugar ( glucose, fructose, dextrose) Saccharide = sugar molecule (mono, di, poly) Glucose: most abundant sugar in our diet; good energy source; found naturally. Fructose: sweetest sugar; found in fruit; found naturally. Galactose: does not occur alone in foods; binds with glucose to form lactose; not found alone in nature; Maltose: glucose + glucose (join in food to form starch; by product of fermentation of grains; beer and wine) Sucrose: glucose + fructose ( found in sugar cane, and honey; table sugar), most common disaccharide. Endosperm: makes up 83% of kernel, energy storage, all starch. Provide structure to the leaves, stems and seeds of plants.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.