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Lecture 12

NUTR 1010 Lecture 12: Lipids cont'd


Department
Nutrition
Course Code
NUTR 1010
Professor
Dalia El Khoury
Lecture
12

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October 5, 2018
Lipids Cont’d
Question: What best characterizes atherosclerosis?
a) An accumulation of plaque in the lining of blood vessels
b) An inflammation of the colon lining
c) The formation of uric acid crystals in the blood
d) The formation of pouches in the lining of the colon
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
What is it?
o Disease of the heart and blood vessels
o Includes heart disease, high blood pressure, heart attacks and strokes
30% of all deaths in Canada are from CVD
CVD costs the Canadian economy more than 20.9 billion every year
2nd leading cause of death in Canada after cancer
Main Cause Atherosclerosis
All starts with the injury process, can happen because of smoking, accumulation of
glucose in the blood, cholesterol in the blood attracting more LDL particles and the

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oxidation process happens to the LDL particles, they will start attracting white blood
cells to the area of the injury this is then converted to macrophages (beginning of fat
accumulation)
And oxidized LDL is dangerous
We have the macrophages, sending inflammatory markers, attract white blood cells
Once the macrophages start forming they will begin to engulph the oxidized LDL
This foam cell will be promoting more inflammation
Leading to the enlargement of this fatty stuff which is called plaque (plaque
accumulation)
More growth factors being released, fibrous cap which is trying to stop the whole
process, this does not usually work, and this can lead to the fibrous cap ruptures
This is serious contain, this can cause blood clots, effect the elasticity of the blood
vessels when they block these blood vessels then it will not allow for blood to travel
throughout your blood stream like your heart, the heart or the brain has to go into over
drive trying to get the blood that it needs to (which can lead to a heart attack, or a
stroke)
After all these things happen, this is when a stroke or heart attack occurs (causing a part
of the heart or brain to die)
Atherosclerosis plaque
FYI ONLY
Atherosclerosis
An inflammatory response to injury within the artery walls
Lipids and fibrous materials are deposited within the artery walls due to action of
immune system
Reduces elasticity of blood vessels and eventually blocks blood flow
o Blockage of blood flow to the heart leads to a heart attack
o Blockage of blood flow to the brain leads to a stroke
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