WEEK 1 Nutrition
what is nutrition?
• the science that studies food and how food nourishes our body and
influences our health
• occupational health (meaningful work, vocation)
• physical health (nutrition has a role in promoting health and preventing or
treating many diseases)
• spiritual health (central to many religious and spiritual ceremonies)
• emotional health (food can provide comfort and can chemically affect
what your mother ate when she was pregnant not only affects you, but
might also affect the health of your children
what is food made of?
• animals and plants
• which are made of … macronutrients, micronutrients, and water
• carbohydrates, fat, and protein
• all give us energy and/or provide structure
• the amount of energy they provide is measured in kilo-calories (kcal)
• *carbohydrates* gives 4 kcal energy/gram
• *fat* gives 9 kcal of energy/gram
• *protein* gives 4 kcal of energy/gram
what is a calorie?
• a unit of energy
• 1 calorie is the amount of energy it takes to warm 1 gram of water by 1
• food energy is measured in kcal, but it's often just called Calories
kcal's are like fuel for a car …
• a human night put 60 kcal's of food fuel in your body
• you burn calories to survive
• a car puts 60L of fuel in the car
• the car burns the fuel to move
• vitamins and minerals
• vitamins are organic molecules our body needs in order to function (organic molecules contain carbon)
• minerals are elements (from the periodic table) our body needs in order to
• don't provide energy, but we need to eat them so that our body can
• --> they burn energy
• --> control nerve and muscle action
• --> make and maintain tissues like bones and blood
• our bodies need water for everything!
• water provides the right environment for …
• --> energy to be burned
• --> our cells to grow
• --> our muscles and nerves to function
• --> hormone signaling
• --> nutrient transport
• --> waste transport … essentially everything
malnutrition: BAD nutrition! (undernutrition and overnutrition)
what is a nutritious diet?
• adequate: has enough of everything
• moderate: doesn't have too much or too little of anything
• balanced: contains the right combination of foods to provide the right
amount of nutrients
• varied: contains different foods each day
why do people choose healthy/unhealthy food? it's based on …
• availability (cost, location, cooking skills)
• cultural and family background
• social acceptibility
• personal preference
• psychological and emotional factors
• health concerns
who to trust with nutrition?
• educated people with credentials
• --> registered dieticians (RD, PDt, RDt)
• --> nutrition professionals with advanced degrees
• --> health canada, public health agency of canada • statistics canada
• National Institutes of Health (USA)
• Peer Reviewed Journal Articles
Peer Reviewed Journal Articles
• where scientists publish their research (Lancet, Science, New England
journal of medicine, american journal of clinical nutrition, european journal
• articles are reviewed by other experts in the field before publication
• NOT magazines, newspapers, etc.
• knowledge often required to correctly interpret research
Can I trust …
• My doctor? yes, BUT most doctors have very little nutrition training. If you
have a dietary problem, most doctors will refer you to a dietitian.
• A nutritionist? "Nutritionist" is not a protected title in Ontario.
• The media? It may not get it right
• completed in the discussion tab on course link (assignment discussion
• worth 5% of total mark
• to be completed independently
• 2 parts
• --> part 1: sept 16th, 11:59
• --> part 2: sept 23rd, 11:59
• open group, start a new thread
• read the rest on d2l
• 2-4 sentences each section
• all parts should be in one post
• course link under content tab
September 11th, 2013 (day 3)
All about nutrition recommendations with the Dietary Reference Intakes
• What are the different DRI values?
• What do they mean?
• What are they for?
How to plan a healthy diet using Eating Well using Eating Well with
Canada's Food Guide
How much is enough?
Health professionals in Canada and the US use the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
• Developed by the Institutes of Medicine
• Developed by American and Canadian nutrition experts
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
• Everything listed today!
Estimated Energy Requirements (EER)
• For calculating how many kcal's people need
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges
• Used to see if you're getting the right balance of macronutrients (print off
1-3 yrs: 45-65% carbs, 5-20% protein, 30-40% fat
4-18 yrs: 45-65% carbs, 10-30% protein, etc etc
Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)
• based on SOLID EVIDENCE
• Meets the needs of 50% of the population
• NOT a good