Nutrition.doc

18 views19 pages
Published on 18 Sep 2012
School
University of Guelph
Department
Nutrition
Course
NUTR 1010
Chapter 1
Adequate Intake (AI)- Recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on
observed/experimentally determined estimates of nutrient intake by a group of healthy
people. Used when RDA cannot be found.
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)- Are ranges (lower and upper
value) of intakes for energy sources that are associated risk of chronic disease while
providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients. Expressed as a percentage of total energy
or calories.
Carbohydrates- 1 of 3 macronutrients made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Derived
from plants and provides energy; primary source of fuel to the brain found in a variety of
foods such as wheat, rice, legumes etc.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)- A set of nutritional values that apply to healthy
people. Created to try to prevent nutrient-deficiency diseases.
Essential nutrients-Are nutrients that cannot be produced by the body and must come
from either food in the diet or nutrient supplements.
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)-The average daily nutrient intake level
estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals at a certain age/gender.
Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)-The average dietary energy intake that should
maintain energy balance in healthy adults. Dietary intake is determined by age, sex etc
fat-soluble vitamins-Vitamins soluble in fat, not water. These are vitamins A,D,E,K
health-A process that includes physical activity and occupational, social, spiritual,
emotional and intellectual health
inorganic-Substance/nutrient that does not contain carbon. E.g. minerals and water.
Lipids-Not soluble in water, contain more energy per gram than carbs because they can
pack tighter together. Important source of energy during rest or low-intensity exercise.
Macronutrients-Nutrient that our bodies need in large amounts for normal healthy
function. E.g. Carbs, fats and proteins.
major minerals- Minerals we need to consume 100mg per day where the total amount in
our bodies is at least 5 g. Things like calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium etc.
malnutrition-Refers to both undernutrition and overnutrion.
Micronutrients-Nutrients needed in small amounts for normal function.
Minerals- Inorganic substances that aren’t broken down by digestion and absorption; not
destroyed by heat or light. Assist in the regulation of many body processes. E.g. calcium
nutrients-Critical to human growth and function. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins,
minerals and water are the 6 classes of nutrients in the foods we eat.
Nutrition-Science that studies food and how it nourishes our bodies and affects health.
Organic-A substance or nutrient that contains carbon.
overnutrition- A diet that has an imbalance of proteins, carbs and fats (too much energy)
which causes several problems such as type 2 diabetes.
Proteins-Only macronutrient that contains nitrogen and assembles to create amino acids.
Play major role in building new cells, tissues, strengthening bones. Such food as meat.
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)-Average daily nutrient intake level tthat meets
the nutrient requirements for 97-8% of healthy individuals at a particular age/sex.
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)-Highest average daily intake level likely to pose no
risk to your health in almost all individuals in a particular age/sex.
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 19 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
trace minerals-Need to consume less than 100mg per day and the amount in our bodies is
less than 5g.
undernutrition-Diet that lacks energy or essential nutrients. Can cause diseases; scurvy.
Vitamins-Organic compounds that assist us in regulating our bodies processes.
water-soluble vitamins-Vitamins that are soluble in water; include vitamin B,C. Need lots
of these nutrients every day but cannot store large amounts in the body.
Chapter 2
adequate diet-A diet that provides enough energy, nutrients and fiber to maintain a
persons health
balanced diet-A diet that contains the combinations of foods that provide a proper balance
of nutrients.
Calorie- Is the energy content. 1 calorie=1kcal=4.184 kilojoules
DASH diet-Dietary approaches to stop hypertension. Designed to assess how DASH
affects high blood pressure.
Moderation-Eating the right amount of foods to maintain a healthy weight and to optimize
the body’s metabolic processes.
nutrient density-The amount of nutrients per amount of energy. A nutrient dense diet
includes foods rich in nutrients and limits foods that provide energy but little nutrients.
Nutrition Facts table-Is the table required on all products that gives the amount of energy
and a minimum of 13 key nutrients per serving of food.
nutritious diet-A diet that provides a proper combination of energy and nutrients. It is
moderate, adequate, balanced and varied.
Percent daily values (%DV)- Info on the nutrition facts table which shows how much this
serving contributes to the overall intake of nutrients listed on the label based on 2000
calorie diet.
Recommended Daily Intakes (RDI)-Amounts of vitamins and minerals used to calculate
the % daily values on nutrition facts table
Variety-Eating many different foods each day.
reference standards-Amounts of nutrients (other than vitamins and minerals) used to
calculate the % daily values on nutrition facts tables.
5-to-10-a-Day for Better Health Program- Designed to make all people aware of the
health benefits of consuming fruits and vegetables.
Chapter 3
Absorption-Physiologic process where molecules of food are taken from the GI tract and
moved to the bloodstream to be carried to different parts of the body
appetite-A psychological desire to consume specific foods (not related to hunger) and can
be caused by smell, sight or social associations.
Bile-Fluid stored by gallbladder, produced by the liver. Emulsifies fats in small intestine
bolus-A mouthful of chewed and moistened food that has been swallowed.
brush border-Describes the microvilli of the small intestines lining which increase the
small intestines absorptive capacity.
celiac disease-Genetic disorder that is a total intolerance for gluten (wheat like products)
which causes an immune reaction that damages the lining of the small intestine.
cell- Smallest unit of matter that exhibits properties of living things. E.g. growth etc
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 19 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
cell membrane-The outer covering of the cell which defines the cells boundaries. A
gatekeeper; allowing or denying entry and exit of molecules, such as nutrients and waste.
Comprises of phospholipids.
cephalic phase-Where digestion, hunger and appetite prep the GI tract for food. Nervous
system stimulates the release of digestive juices.
Chyme-Semi-fluid mass consisting of partially digested food, water and gastric juices.
Constipation-Condition characterized by absence of bowel movements for a long time.
when bowel movements do occur they are usually hard, small and difficult to pass.
cytoplasm-Liquid enclosed by the cell membrane in animal cells.
Denature-The process done by hydrochloric acid which destroys the bond holding the
molecules of proteins together which then allows them to be digested.
Diarrhea-Condition characterized by the frequent passage of loose, watery stools.
digestion- Process by which foods are broken down either mechanically or chemically.
Elimination-Process where undigested and unabsorbed foods and waste products are
removed from the body.
enteric nervous system-Nerves of the GI tract.
enzymes-Assist our body in digesting and absorbing food. They induce chemical changes
in other substances to speed up the bodily process. Enzymes are not changed/ used up.
Esophagus-When swallowing the trachea closes and the esophagus opens. This is the tube
that connects that back of the mouth to the stomach.
food allergy-An allergic reaction to food caused by an activation of the immune system
food intolerance-Gastrointestinal discomfort caused by certain foods not as a result of an
immune system reaction.
gallbladder-A tissue sac below the liver that concentrates and stores bile and secretes it
into the small intestine.
gastric juice-Acidic liquid in the stomach that contains hydrochloric acid, pepsin, water
and other compounds which are all used to help break down food.
gastroesophageal reflux disease-A painful type of heartburn that occurs more than twice a
week.
gastrointestinal (GI) tract-The organs which work together to process foods; mouth,
esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine.
Heartburn-Painful sensation that occurs when hydrochloric acid backs up from the
stomach into the lower esophagus.
hormone-Chemical messenger that goes into the bloodstream from a gland and acts as a
regulator of the physiologic processes at the site it was secreted from.
hunger-A physiological sensation that prompts us to eat. (actually need food).
Hydrophilic-Phospholipids heads attracted to or soluble in water.
Hydrophobic-Phospholipids tails not attracted or soluble in water.
hypothalamus-Follows signals from the digestive system that triggers hunger. Prompts us
to seek and consume food.
inflammatory bowel disease-includes 2 different disease with unknown causes that trigger
inflammation of swelling of the intestine; Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
irritable bowel syndrome-Disorder that interferes with the normal functions of the colon.
Symptoms include abdominal cramps, bloating, constipation etc.
lacteal-Small lymph located inside the villi (on the wall of the small intestine) that absorbs
the final parts of digestion.
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 19 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Adequate intake (ai)- recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on observed/experimentally determined estimates of nutrient intake by a group of healthy people. Acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (amdr)- are ranges (lower and upper value) of intakes for energy sources that are associated risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients. Expressed as a percentage of total energy or calories. Carbohydrates- 1 of 3 macronutrients made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Derived from plants and provides energy; primary source of fuel to the brain found in a variety of foods such as wheat, rice, legumes etc. Dietary reference intakes (dris)- a set of nutritional values that apply to healthy people. Essential nutrients-are nutrients that cannot be produced by the body and must come from either food in the diet or nutrient supplements. Estimated average requirement (ear)-the average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals at a certain age/gender.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.