Adequate Intake (AI)- Recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on
observed/experimentally determined estimates of nutrient intake by a group of healthy
people. Used when RDA cannot be found.
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)- Are ranges (lower and upper
value) of intakes for energy sources that are associated risk of chronic disease while
providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients. Expressed as a percentage of total energy
Carbohydrates- 1 of 3 macronutrients made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Derived
from plants and provides energy; primary source of fuel to the brain found in a variety of
foods such as wheat, rice, legumes etc.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)- A set of nutritional values that apply to healthy
people. Created to try to prevent nutrient-deficiency diseases.
Essential nutrients-Are nutrients that cannot be produced by the body and must come
from either food in the diet or nutrient supplements.
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)-The average daily nutrient intake level
estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals at a certain age/gender.
Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)-The average dietary energy intake that should
maintain energy balance in healthy adults. Dietary intake is determined by age, sex etc
fat-soluble vitamins-Vitamins soluble in fat, not water. These are vitamins A,D,E,K
health-A process that includes physical activity and occupational, social, spiritual,
emotional and intellectual health
inorganic-Substance/nutrient that does not contain carbon. E.g. minerals and water.
Lipids-Not soluble in water, contain more energy per gram than carbs because they can
pack tighter together. Important source of energy during rest or low-intensity exercise.
Macronutrients-Nutrient that our bodies need in large amounts for normal healthy
function. E.g. Carbs, fats and proteins.
major minerals- Minerals we need to consume 100mg per day where the total amount in
our bodies is at least 5 g. Things like calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium etc.
malnutrition-Refers to both undernutrition and overnutrion.
Micronutrients-Nutrients needed in small amounts for normal function.
Minerals- Inorganic substances that aren’t broken down by digestion and absorption; not
destroyed by heat or light. Assist in the regulation of many body processes. E.g. calcium
nutrients-Critical to human growth and function. Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins,
minerals and water are the 6 classes of nutrients in the foods we eat.
Nutrition-Science that studies food and how it nourishes our bodies and affects health.
Organic-A substance or nutrient that contains carbon.
overnutrition- A diet that has an imbalance of proteins, carbs and fats (too much energy)
which causes several problems such as type 2 diabetes.
Proteins-Only macronutrient that contains nitrogen and assembles to create amino acids.
Play major role in building new cells, tissues, strengthening bones. Such food as meat.
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)-Average daily nutrient intake level tthat meets
the nutrient requirements for 97-8% of healthy individuals at a particular age/sex.
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)-Highest average daily intake level likely to pose no
risk to your health in almost all individuals in a particular age/sex.
trace minerals-Need to consume less than 100mg per day and the amount in our bodies is
less than 5g.
undernutrition-Diet that lacks energy or essential nutrients. Can cause diseases; scurvy.
Vitamins-Organic compounds that assist us in regulating our bodies processes.
water-soluble vitamins-Vitamins that are soluble in water; include vitamin B,C. Need lots
of these nutrients every day but cannot store large amounts in the body.
adequate diet-A diet that provides enough energy, nutrients and fiber to maintain a
balanced diet-A diet that contains the combinations of foods that provide a proper balance
Calorie- Is the energy content. 1 calorie=1kcal=4.184 kilojoules
DASH diet-Dietary approaches to stop hypertension. Designed to assess how DASH
affects high blood pressure.
Moderation-Eating the right amount of foods to maintain a healthy weight and to optimize
the body’s metabolic processes.
nutrient density-The amount of nutrients per amount of energy. A nutrient dense diet
includes foods rich in nutrients and limits foods that provide energy but little nutrients.
Nutrition Facts table-Is the table required on all products that gives the amount of energy
and a minimum of 13 key nutrients per serving of food.
nutritious diet-A diet that provides a proper combination of energy and nutrients. It is
moderate, adequate, balanced and varied.
Percent daily values (%DV)- Info on the nutrition facts table which shows how much this
serving contributes to the overall intake of nutrients listed on the label based on 2000
Recommended Daily Intakes (RDI)-Amounts of vitamins and minerals used to calculate
the % daily values on nutrition facts table
Variety-Eating many different foods each day.
reference standards-Amounts of nutrients (other than vitamins and minerals) used to
calculate the % daily values on nutrition facts tables.
5-to-10-a-Day for Better Health Program- Designed to make all people aware of the
health benefits of consuming fruits and vegetables.
Absorption-Physiologic process where molecules of food are taken from the GI tract and
moved to the bloodstream to be carried to different parts of the body
appetite-A psychological desire to consume specific foods (not related to hunger) and can
be caused by smell, sight or social associations.
Bile-Fluid stored by gallbladder, produced by the liver. Emulsifies fats in small intestine
bolus-A mouthful of chewed and moistened food that has been swallowed.
brush border-Describes the microvilli of the small intestines lining which increase the
small intestines absorptive capacity.
celiac disease-Genetic disorder that is a total intolerance for gluten (wheat like products)
which causes an immune reaction that damages the lining of the small intestine.
cell- Smallest unit of matter that exhibits properties of living things. E.g. growth etc
cell membrane-The outer covering of the cell which defines the cells boundaries. A
gatekeeper; allowing or denying entry and exit of molecules, such as nutrients and waste.
Comprises of phospholipids.
cephalic phase-Where digestion, hunger and appetite prep the GI tract for food. Nervous
system stimulates the release of digestive juices.
Chyme-Semi-fluid mass consisting of partially digested food, water and gastric juices.
Constipation-Condition characterized by absence of bowel movements for a long time.
when bowel movements do occur they are usually hard, small and difficult to pass.
cytoplasm-Liquid enclosed by the cell membrane in animal cells.
Denature-The process done by hydrochloric acid which destroys the bond holding the
molecules of proteins together which then allows them to be digested.
Diarrhea-Condition characterized by the frequent passage of loose, watery stools.
digestion- Process by which foods are broken down either mechanically or chemically.
Elimination-Process where undigested and unabsorbed foods and waste products are
removed from the body.
enteric nervous system-Nerves of the GI tract.
enzymes-Assist our body in digesting and absorbing food. They induce chemical changes
in other substances to speed up the bodily process. Enzymes are not changed/ used up.
Esophagus-When swallowing the trachea closes and the esophagus opens. This is the tube
that connects that back of the mouth to the stomach.
food allergy-An allergic reaction to food caused by an activation of the immune system
food intolerance-Gastrointestinal discomfort caused by certain foods not as a result of an
immune system reaction.
gallbladder-A tissue sac below the liver that concentrates and stores bile and secretes it
into the small intestine.
gastric juice-Acidic liquid in the stomach that contains hydrochloric acid, pepsin, water
and other compounds which are all used to help break down food.
gastroesophageal reflux disease-A painful type of heartburn that occurs more than twice a
gastrointestinal (GI) tract-The organs which work together to process foods; mouth,
esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine.
Heartburn-Painful sensation that occurs when hydrochloric acid backs up from the
stomach into the lower esophagus.
hormone-Chemical messenger that goes into the bloodstream from a gland and acts as a
regulator of the physiologic processes at the site it was secreted from.
hunger-A physiological sensation that prompts us to eat. (actually need food).
Hydrophilic-Phospholipids heads attracted to or soluble in water.
Hydrophobic-Phospholipids tails not attracted or soluble in water.
hypothalamus-Follows signals from the digestive system that triggers hunger. Prompts us
to seek and consume food.
inflammatory bowel disease-includes 2 different disease with unknown causes that trigger
inflammation of swelling of the intestine; Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
irritable bowel syndrome-Disorder that interferes with the normal functions of the colon.
Symptoms include abdominal cramps, bloating, constipation etc.
lacteal-Small lymph located inside the villi (on the wall of the small intestine) that absorbs
the final parts of digestion.
Adequate intake (ai)- recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on observed/experimentally determined estimates of nutrient intake by a group of healthy people. Acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (amdr)- are ranges (lower and upper value) of intakes for energy sources that are associated risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients. Expressed as a percentage of total energy or calories. Carbohydrates- 1 of 3 macronutrients made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Derived from plants and provides energy; primary source of fuel to the brain found in a variety of foods such as wheat, rice, legumes etc. Dietary reference intakes (dris)- a set of nutritional values that apply to healthy people. Essential nutrients-are nutrients that cannot be produced by the body and must come from either food in the diet or nutrient supplements. Estimated average requirement (ear)-the average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals at a certain age/gender.