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NUTR 2050
Simone Holligan

NUTR 2050 – Week 2 (September 17, 2013) Emerging Adulthood What is emerging adulthood?  Theory presented in the journal American Psychologist in 2000 - Jeffrey Arnett, PhD  Phase of the life span between adolescence and adulthood  Approx. ages 18 to 25 years  “Transitional period leading to adulthood”  Markers of transition to adulthood: 1) Completed education 2) Left parent home 3) Full-time work (financial independence) 4) Life partner 5) Children Why is this new life stage?  é Attainment of higher education  Gains in educational attainment means completing education at older ages  é % residing with their parents  é Age of marriage o Average age of first marriage  1972: men 24.9, women 22.5  2008: men 31.1, women 29.1  é Age of parenthood o % of mothers that are <24 years of age:  1979: 40.7%  2004: 20.6% Characteristics of Emerging Adulthood  Don‟t see themselves as adults  Time of identity exploration o Work, love, worldview, lifestyle o Experimentation (what you really like, what you want to do in life)  High level of transition o Residential status, school attendance o Hallmark of this life stage Differences from Young Adulthood  Young adulthood: age late 20‟s - 40  More stable  More likely to have achieved key markers of adulthood  Self-identify as adults Your thoughts?  How are you different now than you were as an adolescent (thoughts, beliefs, actions)?  How is your life different now than it was when you were an adolescent?  Do you consider yourself an adult? B RAIN DEVELOPMENT D URING E MERGING A DULTHOOD  „Rental car companies have it right. The brain isn‟t fully developed at 16, when we are allowed to drive, or 19, when we are allowed to drink, but closer to 25 when we are allowed to rent a car.‟  Human brain does not reach full maturity until at least mid-20‟s Brain Development  Frontal lobe: o Largest of the brain‟s structures o Includes “prefrontal cortex”, which is the area associated with a set of functions termed the “Executive Suite” “Executive Suite”  Processing of tasks such as: o Calibration of risk and reward (Is there a risk in an assignment? What are the rewards?) o Problem solving o Prioritizing o Long term planning o Self evaluation o Regulation of emotion  Changes in prefrontal cortex result in more sophisticated learning and emotion regulation  • “Executive Suite” functions take less effort and are more likely to occur than during adolescence End results in Brain Development  More complex thinking o Consideration of both present and future; abstraction  Appreciation of diverse views  Emotion regulation o Weighing immediate rewards with future consequences  Risk-taking & decision making o Increased ability to modulate risk-taking and make decisions about the future H EALTH S TATUS OF E MERGING A DULTS Overall Health and Well-Being  Self reported health is high  Rates of disease and disability are low  Peak in substance use, sexually transmitted infections  Psychiatric disorders also peak, but depression decreases “Window of Opportunity”  Time of identity exploration  Incorporating health-related behaviours is a part of self-identity  Important indicator of lasting health-related behaviours Socio-Ecologic Model  Individual: time of identity exploration; high independence; skill development and self-efficacy  Interpersonal: remain close with parents and siblings; possibly new peer groups; significant other; roommates  Organizational/institutional: workplace or school-based environments  Community: norms regarding body image; dietary intake; preventive health  Public Policy/Society: strong influence of media/advertising; unemployment rates; housing prices Primary Goals of Emerging Adulthood  Support an active lifestyle  Maintain physical status o Maintain a healthy body weight o Prevent cardiovascular, cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes o “Window of opportunity”  Reproduction (next week) Growth in Emerging Adulthood  Muscular strength peaks  Continue to develop bone density until ~ age of 30 years Dietary Intake in Emerging Adults  Fast food intake is highest  Low intake of fruit and vegetables o 6% of university or college students have 5 or more servings per day  Low milk intake  High salty snack foods  High consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSBs)  Relation between SSB intake and body weight has been hot topic  SSBs are composed of energy-containing sweeteners such a sucrose, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), or fruit juice concentrates added to beverage by manufacturers, food establishments, or individuals  HFCS has been touted as problematic, but: o HFCS consists of 45-58% glucose, and 42 – 55% fructose o And sucrose consists of 50% glucose and 50% fructose  Problem lies in metabolism of these simple sugars in cells: o Glucose uptake regulated by energy status and insulin levels o Fructose uptake not regulated by energy status nor insulin levels Glucose Transport Across Intestinal Cell (Enterocyte) A CTIVE TRANSPORT OF GLUCOSE HTTP://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=OYH1DEU7-4E Glucose Transport Across Cell Membrane Effects of Added Sugars  Increased fructose uptake: o Stimulates de novo lipogenesis in liver o Is associated with dyslipidemia - increased fasting triglyceride (TG), plasma glucose and insulin levels, and decreased insulin sensitivity  Fructose intake from any sugar or HFCS has been shown to promote development of visceral adiposity  SSBs lead to weight gain through their high added- sugar content, low satiety, and incomplete compensatory reduction in energy intake (intake of liquid calories) SSBs‟ Impact on Health  Meta-analysis by Malik et al (2013) showed that: o For every 1 serving (12 oz.) /day increase in SSB intake, there was a 0.22kg (0.5lb) additional weight gain over 1 year o 0.06 unit increase in BMI over 1 year  Since adult weight gain in general population is on average ~ 1lb/year, eliminating SSBs from diet could be effective in preventing age-related weight gain Influences on Diet: Lifestyle  Research study: 1,687 emerging adults, aged 18-23 (Larson et al., JADA, 2009)  35% of males and 42% of females lack time to sit down and eat a meal  Eating on the run associated with: o é sugar sweetened beverage o é fast food o étotal fat and saturated fat o ê fruit and vegetables True or False?  Students who live on campus have better diets than those who live off campus. Influences on Diet: Living Sitation  Compared to students living on campus, those that lived with their parents or in rented apartments/houses had: o é fast food intake o ê fruit and vegetables o ê whole grain  Living on campus = better dietary intake  Eat with others (roommates, friends, significant other)” o é Fruit and vegetables o é milk Influences on Diet: Food Preparation  Among emerging adults, approx. 44% of males and 56% of females report making meals weekly  Common barriers: o Too busy (36%) o Insufficient memory (24%) o Inadequate cooking skills (20%)  Food preparation: o é fruit and vegetables o é whole grains o ê fast food Influences on Diet: Significant Other  Women with a partner with health promoting attitudes and beliefs: o é physical activity o é fruits and vegetables o ê obese/overweight  Men with a partner with health promoting attitudes and beliefs: o é physical activity Influences on Diet: Marketing  Males aged 16-29 often main target of fast food industry  Fast food late night, “fourth meal” o “You‟r e out. You‟re hungry. You‟re doing the fourth meal.”  Value pricing, 1$ menus BEHAVIOURS OF E MERGING ADULTS THAT IMPACT H EALTH STATUS Stress Management  Acute stress response promotes adaptation and survival via neural, cardiovascular, autonomic, immune and metabolic systems  Chronic stress can promote and exacerbate pathophysiology through dysregulation of these same systems  Brain is central organ of Stress response  Allostasis: process of achieving stability or homeostasis through Physiological or behavioural change Allostatic Load  Burden of chronic stress and accompanying changes in personal behaviour (e.g. smoking, overeating, excess drinking, poor quality sleep) is known as Allostatic load  Left unmanaged, allostatic load can promote anxiety disorders, hostile and aggressive states, depression, substance abuse, and post-traumatic stress disorder (McEwen, 2000)  Research has also shown links for both depression and hostility with cardiovascular disease Stress Management  From an
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