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Lecture 2

NUTR 2150 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Postprandial, Very Low-Density Lipoprotein, Blood Sugar

Course Code
NUTR 2150
Doug Goff

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NUTR2150 [Type text] 13 September 2016
Nutrients: From the Plate to You
Big molecules like starches and proteins cannot be broken down and absorbed on their
own, they need to be chemically treated in your body first
Physiological responses:
o Hunger: the physiological response to needing nutrition
Initiation of consumption of food
o Satiation: the signal to stop eating
o Satiety: the length of time between the end of ingestion of the first meal, and the
beginning of hunger for the next meal
Psychological response:
o Appetite: the mental response/desires we feel for food
Based on visuals, smells, etc.
Chemical breakdown
Involves a lot of secretions
o 7L a day recycled liquids
Uptake of small molecules into the body
Liver, adipose, muscle
Utilization of the small molecules for energy and as nutrients
Gastrointestinal Tract
Auxiliary organs: liver, gallbladder, pancreas, kidneys
Digestion and components of the GI tract
Lumen: the inside of the GI tract, “outside” the body
o Mastication, introduce saliva, some amylase enzymes, produce bolus
o Secretes gastric juice
o Physical break down of food structure
o Sterilization to get rid of microorganisms (done with the acid)
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NUTR2150 [Type text] 13 September 2016
o Controls amount of food emptying through the pylorus
o Storage, holds your meal while it’s being broken down
o Low pH, very acidic (HCl)
Creates a potential to develop gastric ulcers
The stomach has a gastric lining to protect it from ulcers, but sometimes it
can be broken down
o Chyme: the mixture of broken down food together with the gastric secretions in
your stomach
o Almost no absorption occurs in the stomach
Some drugs are, some water, some alcohol if over-consumed
Essentially, no nutrient absorption from the stomach
o Peptic enzymes (pepsin) starts to break down large food molecules
o Three main parts of the stomach:
Small Intestine
o Secretions from the pancreas, liver/gallbladder to raise the pH, and chemically
break down the food
o Absorbs nutrients into the blood stream
o Duodenum
o Jejunum:
Emulsification of fats by bile
o Ileum
o Some people get intestinal ulcers, but it is less common
Allergies are an inability for the mucus to hold proteins that should be there from leaking
Large Intestine
o Ascending, transverse, descending
o Water absorption
o Site of fermentation
Break down of dietary fibres
o 10x more organisms within our colon than we have cells in our body
Accessory Organs to the GI Tract
o Secretion of bile
Bile is an emulsifying agent made of salts, cholesterol, lipo-proteins
o Accepts nutrients back
o Carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism
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