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Lecture 1

NUTR 3210 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Normal Distribution, Gastrointestinal Tract, Standard Deviation

8 pages64 viewsFall 2017

Department
Nutrition
Course Code
NUTR 3210
Professor
Monk
Lecture
1

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NUTR*3210
Lecture 1-Thursday, September 7, 2017
Nutrition: *Do not need to know this defN, but understand it*
Science of food and food systems, their nutrients and other constituents, and their
interactions within and between all relevant biological, social and environmental
systems
Nutritional Sciences:
1. Broad and integrative disciplines
a. Biochemistry
b. Molecular biology
c. Physiology
d. Metabolism
2. Strives to achieve a comprehensive understanding
a. Nutrients in relation to health, disease, quality of ife
3. Relates to ingestion, absorption, transport, use and excretion
4. Holistic approach
a. Relationship between biological, social and environmental systems
Goals of modern nutrition
There are 3 main ideas that are guiding research:
1. Understanding the effects of over-nutrition (obesity) and micronutrient
supplementation
2. Multiple interacting nutrients
3. Nutrigenomics
Definition of nutrient classes (6)
*Each class has different chemical characteristics that allow them to fulfill their roles in
metabolism*
2 ways to classify nutrients:
Macronutrients vs Micronutrients
Macronutrients
o Need lots-E providing nutrients
o Carbohydrates (CHO), Lipids, Proteins
Micronutrients
o Need a little
o Vitamins, minerals
Other
o Water-highest requirements by weight, of ALL nutrients
Organic VS inorganic
Organic
o contain carbon structure
o Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins
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NUTR*3210
Lecture 1-Thursday, September 7, 2017
Inorganic
o No carbon
o Minerals, water
Essential nutrient: A chemical that is required for optimal metabolism, but cannot be
synthesized either at all OR cannot be synthesized rapidly enough, to meet the needs of an
animal or human for one or more physiological functions
Purified diet experiment (uses diets devoid of the nutrient of interest)
Uses known and pure sources of each ingredient($$$)
a) Experimental group: Fed a purified diet lacking the nutrient (No utiet 
b) Control group: fed the same purified
c) Result:
a. Repoduile patholog, defiie disease
b. Clinical outoe, suliialfutue disease
c. Add ak utiet : eese/oet the defiie o the defiie disease
condition-the experimental group will be identical to the control group
Nutritional deficiency diseases *Not on midterm*
*Nutrient deficiency does not need to be lethal to define the nutrients essentiality*
Deficiency in Iron, folate, and/or Vitamin B12
o Anemia: low circulating red blood cell volume, decreased O2 transport and
fatigue
Deficiency in Vitamin D
o Rickets/osteomalacia: deformed leg bones during infancy increased fractures in
adults
Deficiency in Thiamine (Vit. B1)
o Beriberi: abnormalities in the nervous system, weakness and pain in limbs,
irregular heart beat
Deficiency of Vitamin C
o Scurvy(due to lack of fruits/veggies): prevents proper collagen formation and
triggers haemorrhaging, bleeding of the gums, skin ulcers, etc
Deficiency of Niacin (Vit. B3)
o Pellagra: common in high corn based diet; sensitive skin, dementia and diarrhea
1st clinical trial in history (1747)
12 sailors with scurvy (swollen gums, joints, bleeding and death of >1million sailors)
o sailors diet: salt pork, bread and rum
Division into 6 intervention groups
Hypothesis: dietary acids would cure the symptoms of scurvy
Groups:
o Control group (salt water)-also sick
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NUTR*3210
Lecture 1-Thursday, September 7, 2017
o Vinegar
o Sulfuric acid
o Cider
o 2 oranges, 1 lemon (citric acid-“olutio as’t aid, it as dieta soues of Vit
C to correct the dietary deficiency)
o Spicy paste/barley water
Essential nutrients
Approximately 5000 chemicals are in the diet, but approximately 40 nutrients are ESSENTIAL
Carbs (0):
o None are ESSENTIAL
Fats (2):
1) Linoleic acid (Omega 6)
2) Alpha-linoleic acid (Omega 3)
Protein/amino acids (9-10)
1) Val
2) Iso
3) Leu
4) Phe
5) Thr
6) Try
7) Met
8) Lys
9) His
10) Arg
Vitamins (12)
1) A
2) D
3) K
4) E
5) C
6) B vitamins
Minerals (14)
1) Ca
2) Na
3) K
4) Cl
5) Mg
6) P
7) Fe
8) Cu
9) Zn
10) Se
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