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Lecture 1

NUTR 3210 Lecture 1: Intro

8 Pages

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NUTR 3210

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NUTR*3210 Lecture 1-Thursday, September 7, 2017 Nutrition: *Do not need to know this defN, but understand it* Science of food and food systems, their nutrients and other constituents, and their interactions within and between all relevant biological, social and environmental systems Nutritional Sciences: 1. Broad and integrative disciplines a. Biochemistry b. Molecular biology c. Physiology d. Metabolism 2. Strives to achieve a comprehensive understanding a. Nutrients in relation to health, disease, quality of ife 3. Relates to ingestion, absorption, transport, use and excretion 4. Holistic approach a. Relationship between biological, social and environmental systems Goals of modern nutrition There are 3 main ideas that are guiding research: 1. Understanding the effects of over-nutrition (obesity) and micronutrient supplementation 2. Multiple interacting nutrients 3. Nutrigenomics Definition of nutrient classes (6) *Each class has different chemical characteristics that allow them to fulfill their roles in metabolism* 2 ways to classify nutrients: Macronutrients vs Micronutrients • Macronutrients o Need lots-E providing nutrients o Carbohydrates (CHO), Lipids, Proteins • Micronutrients o Need a little o Vitamins, minerals • Other o Water-highest requirements by weight, of ALL nutrients Organic VS inorganic • Organic o contain carbon structure o Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins NUTR*3210 Lecture 1-Thursday, September 7, 2017 • Inorganic o No carbon o Minerals, water Essential nutrient: A chemical that is required for optimal metabolism, but cannot be synthesized either at all OR cannot be synthesized rapidly enough, to meet the needs of an animal or human for one or more physiological functions Purified diet experiment (uses diets devoid of the nutrient of interest) Uses known and pure sources of each ingredient($$$) a) Experimental group: Fed a purified diet lacking the nutrient (No nutrient “x”) b) Control group: fed the same purified c) Result: a. Reproducible pathology, “deficiency disease” b. Clinical outcome, “subclinical”(future disease) c. Add back nutrient “x”: reverse/correct the deficiency or the deficiency disease condition-the experimental group will be identical to the control group Nutritional deficiency diseases *Not on midterm* *Nutrient deficiency does not need to be lethal to define the nutrients essentiality* • Deficiency in Iron, folate, and/or Vitamin B12 o Anemia: low circulating red blood cell volume, decreased O2 transport and fatigue • Deficiency in Vitamin D o Rickets/osteomalacia: deformed leg bones during infancy increased fractures in adults • Deficiency in Thiamine (Vit. B1) o Beriberi: abnormalities in the nervous system, weakness and pain in limbs, irregular heart beat • Deficiency of Vitamin C o Scurvy(due to lack of fruits/veggies): prevents proper collagen formation and triggers haemorrhaging, bleeding of the gums, skin ulcers, etc • Deficiency of Niacin (Vit. B3) o Pellagra: common in high corn based diet; sensitive skin, dementia and diarrhea 1st clinical trial in history (1747) • 12 sailors with scurvy (swollen gums, joints, bleeding and death of >1million sailors) o sailors diet: salt pork, bread and rum • Division into 6 intervention groups • Hypothesis: dietary acids would cure the symptoms of scurvy • Groups: o Control group (salt water)-also sick NUTR*3210 Lecture 1-Thursday, September 7, 2017 o Vinegar o Sulfuric acid o Cider o 2 oranges, 1 lemon (citric acid-Solution wasn’t acid, it was dietary sources of Vit C to correct the dietary deficiency) o Spicy paste/barley water Essential nutrients Approximately 5000 chemicals are in the diet, but approximately 40 nutrients are ESSENTIAL • Carbs (0): o None are ESSENTIAL • Fats (2): 1) Linoleic acid (Omega 6) 2) Alpha-linoleic acid (Omega 3) • Protein/amino acids (9-10) 1) Val 2) Iso 3) Leu 4) Phe 5) Thr 6) Try 7) Met 8) Lys 9) His 10)Arg • Vitamins (12) 1) A 2) D 3) K 4) E 5) C 6) B vitamins • Minerals (14) 1) Ca 2) Na 3) K 4) Cl 5) Mg 6) P 7) Fe 8) Cu 9) Zn 10)Se NUTR*3210 Lecture 1-Thursday, September 7, 2017 11)I 12)F 13)Mn 14)Mo • Conditionally essential nutrients 1) May be essential under certain conditions Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI’s) • Estimated average requirement (EAR) o Reflects the requirements of 50% of the population, used in planning and assessing intakes for groups of people • Recommended dietary allowance (RDA) o Derived from the EAR and meets or exceeds the requirement for 97.5% of the population-health Canada wants us to consume RDA intake level o Most important o Consider: ▪ Gender ▪ Life cycle (children vs elderly) ▪ Life stage (pregnancy) • Upper limit (UL) o Highest average daily intake that may not pose risk of adverse affects to most individuals in a population o “safe amount to consume” • Adequate intake (AI) o Used when the ear, RDA cannot be developed due to insufficient evidenc
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