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Lecture 11

NUTR 3210 Lecture 11: micronutrients part 2

6 Pages

Course Code
NUTR 3210
David Mutch

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Micronutrients part 2 micronutrients involvedinoxidantdefense Reduction-Oxidation Reactions Reduction-oxidationreaction aka redox reaction - Involvesthe transfer ofelectrons between two substrates - Many biochemical reactions are essentiallyelectron transfers Large number ofmicronutrients have redox functions The primaryelectron carriersin the body areNADHand FADH2 Thisisimportant for thecreation of ATP Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) ROSproduced asa by-product of the ETC when proper electron flow fails(~1%leakage) Occursin O2 rich environment where oxygen can react with electrons Radicalshave unpaired electrons - /unpaired electron meansimbalanced electrons - /want toget rid of imbalance sowillget ridof electrons - /radicalsare produced inany cellthat hasa mitochondria Mutations in SOD =Lou Gehrigs - ROSare linked todisease H2O2 converted toH2Oby catalase, glutathione peroxidase (seleniumdependent enzymes) However,ROSarent alwaysbad (remember T3 and T4 production) /1%of electrons from the mitochondria leak outand react withO2which leadstoROS /SODformed by oxygenand electron which isaradical(?) - SODtakesanother electron from copper or zincand willfromH2O2 /ifH2O2 interactswith leaked out electron,it will becomeahydroxyl radical which ishugely reactive - Hydroxylradical will goattack DNA,lipidswhichcan lead tocancer and soforth Vitamin E Encompasses 8compounds(vitamers) - 4 tocopherols o Have saturated side chains with 16carbons - 4 tocotrienols o Have unsaturated sidechains with16carbons Vitamers in both classes (, , , ) Only -tocopherol has significant activity inthebody Nointer-conversion of vitamersin animals Allare found naturally infoods Tocopherol derivedfromgreek word: - Tokos=child birth & phero=tobear orbringforth - Based on work showing that rats couldnt reproducewhen vitaminEwasabsent fromthe diet Vitamin E 4 tocopherols Saturated side chain (phytyl tail) Nomenclature usedto describe #and positionofringCH3groups =most methylated ring ***the hydroxyl group isthe antioxidant side Found free in foods - Found in almonds,dietary plant oils,etc. - Absorbed passively Rand S referstochiralcarbon configurationofmethylgroupsonsidechain Natural -tocopherol isRRR - Fitsin tocopherol transfer protein (TTP) - /most important isnormal -tocopherolRRR sinceit can fit intoTTP - /TTP willmove -tocopherol aroundthe body /differencesimportant inbioactivity in the bodysince methylgroupsareindifferent spots Vitamin E 4 tocotrienols Unsaturated side chain (phytyl tail) Nomenclature rules the same astocopher
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