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NUTR 3330 (14)

CHOCOLATE (Flavonoid).docx

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NUTR 3330
Alison Duncan

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CHOCOLATE FACTS - it is a flavonoid - produced form cacao bean – plant :. phytochemicals - flavonoid profile of cacao bean varies for different cultivars o usually about 15% dry weight - most abundant flavonoids are flavanols - identified in monomer to decamer forms (describe flavonoids in cacao beans) o monomeric forms:  1 unit  epicathechin  catechin o oligomeric form:  many units  procyanidins CHOCOLATE GLOSSARY Flavonoid: type of polyphenolic compound that has biological activity in humans - Flavanol: type of flavonoid; found in high concentration in cocoa and chocolate (also in tea and red wine) o Epicatechin: a monomeric form (1 unit) of flavonol o Catechin: a monomeric form (1 unit) of flavonol o Procyanidin: an oligomeric form (2 or more units) of flavanol CHOCOLATE PROCESSING; EFFECTS OF FLAVONOIDS - Cocoa bean selection: different cultivars have different amounts - Fermentation: longer = greater losses of flavonoids - Drying: minimal losses of flavonoids - Roasting: higher temperature and longer time =greater losses of flavonoids - Alkalizing (Dutch process): large losses in flavonoids (optional step) FLAVANOL CONTENT OF CHOCOLATE - higher in dark chocolate o one of the richest sources - recall: flavonols were not included in assessment of flavonoid intake in flavonoid lecture CHOCOLATE HEALTH EFFECTS - potential to decrease risk of CVD - chocolate flavanols as antioxidants IN VITRO - cocoa inhibits LDL oxidation CHOCOLATE - individual flavanols in coca have different antioxidant potential with respect to inhibiting LDL oxidation (oxidized LDL – marker for CVD) - large oligomer cocoa flavanols were shown to cause relaxation of smooth muscle o allows for easier blood flow o prevents blood clots - purified cocoa procyanidins (oligomer) shown to inhibit platelet aggregation - cocoa flavano
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