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Lecture

October 8.docx

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Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHIL 1000
Professor
John Russon

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1 of 4 October 8/2013 PHIL*1000*0106 Introduction to Philosophy Socrates: this dialogue takes place right before his execution o Socrates has a lot of rich friends, but was quite poor himself o He spent a lot of time talking to wealthy and educated people o When he was sentenced to death, people were pretty unhappy and many came together with a lot of money o They have the money for the purpose of bribing the guards who were holding him in jail o When he was sentenced to death, he felt as though they had made the wrong decision, but he refused to go when breaking out was an option. Why? 2 main reasons  P. 536: "we must examine whether we ought to do it or not. For my weight is and always has been to obey no one and nothing except the reasoning which seems to be best when I draw my conclusions"  He does what he does for a reason- his actions are based on his own senses of reasoning  Appeals to his own rationality to decide how he's going to act  Reasons & reasoning  "What I have said in the past I must not throw over board now because this fortune that has come to me. The things that I believed then I still believe now, the reasoning has not changed so my actions should not change"  Consistency He says to Crato, to imagine they were talking with the laws, where the laws ask why he is breaking them. Consistency: he says he's spent his whole life endorsing Athens and thinking it was a good place. If he didn't like the way the city was, he would have left. His actions throughout his whole life then expressed this view and consistency endorsed Athens. Through his deeds, he expressed his view. He therefore stands for the Athenian system. The very democratic feature of Athens though, is what resulted in his finding of guilt, therefore he was found guilty by something he had endorsed, and therefore did not want to say no to it, since his whole life he supposed it. He disagrees with the result, but accepts that the system has a greater authority than he does to say what's going to happen. His reasoning tells him it was right for him to have done what he did, but his consistency tells him he must accept what the system has decided for him. He won't change what he does, but he accepts the judgement that he would be wrong. Laws p. 541-546 o He lived endorsing the laws and so can't turn his back on them when they have made a judgement 2 of 4 o How much do we owe to the laws? They aren't just forces that restrict us from doing things, but rather they form us o His conversation with the law emphasises how much the stages of our development depend upon law and the situations in which human communities establish safe, regulated, organized terrains where we can carry our activities essential to our development ie. marriage, upbringing, education o Because things are accepted, we can do them  Example: marriage  In a situation where you don't have an established structure ensuring things can take place, then people can try to stop you  As simple a thing as choosing to live your life with another person is not something you can do on your own, it depends on your living in a broader system that will support that  Example: parenting  We have laws and broad social standards to try and ensure bad parenting doesn't happen  Socially recognized view about how upbringing has to happen and the laws are there to help ensure it happens that way  Example: education  We don't chose to get an education, we depend on it already being in place
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