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Lecture 1-Jan 11.docx

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PHIL 1010
Karyn Freedman

Philosophy: Soc and Pol Issues Jan.11/12 Logic and Critical Reasoning -Philosophers reason in a very predictable way - an argument consists of a set of sentences consisting of one r more premises, which contain the evidence and a conclusion which is supposed to follow from the premises. For example: Socrates is a man. (Premise #1) All men are mortal. (Premise #2) Therefore, Socrates is mortal. (Conclusion) *** What makes a good argument good is logical entailment. -Bad arguments vs. good arguments: If the premises imply the conclusion, then the argument in question is a good one. ***Truth vs. Validity For example: If money grows on trees, then Bill Clinton is the Prime Minister. (Premise #1) Money grows on trees. (Premise #2) Thus, Bill Clinton is the PM of Canada. (Conclusion) ***Symbolic Logic-take out context and replace it with just a symbol ***Test: Look at argument. Look at both premises. If both are true, then you cannot deny the conclusion on pain of consistency. You cannot deny the conclusion, if you accept the premises. -an argument is deductively valid so long as the argument is such that the conclusion must be true if the premises are true. ***Calling an argument valid, is paying it a compliment. For example: If it is raining then there are clouds in the sky. (Premise #1) There are clouds in the sky. (Premise #2) Therefore, it is raining. (Conclusion) ***pq then q p For example: If I won the lo
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