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Lecture 13

Lecture 13- Mills.docx

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHIL 1050
Professor
Patricia Sheridan
Semester
Winter

Description
Mills Measuring Happiness • Happiness is something we can quantify: measure • Jermy Bentham, originator of utilitarianism, specified: -Intensity, duration, certainty or uncertainty, immediacy, and its extent -That is, the number of people who will be affected by it • Bentham’s calculus: sum up the number of persons affected and the number of persona affected and the pleasure that will result; sum up the pain that will result to individuals and the degree of that pain • Kant- people are end’s in themselves and so can’t take David’s life The number count • The rightness of an act is measured by the degree to which it brings about happiness, or reduces pain. • So, an act calculated to make one or two people happy is good, but an act that brings about the happiness of one hundred people is more morally praiseworthy • Many people volunteer in community projects -But what makes Mother Theresa a hero? -Numbers and magnitude of good. Moral requirements • Kantian view: always required to act out of good will and its valuing of others as ends in themselves -Don’t lie, don’t steal, don’t cheat • Utilitarian view: always required to act such that the greatest overall happiness or freedom from pain is achieved -No categorical imperatives acting with a view to outcomes What is morally required? • Moral acts are those that promote a better kind of life for the greatest number -Or diminishing pain to the greatest degree possible • Creating happiness or reducing pain is the fundamental requirement of morality • This doesn’t mean that gluttony or licentiousness is a moral requirement • Morality requires bringing about the greatest amount if happiness,
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