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University of Guelph
PHIL 2140
Kenneth Dorter

Philosophy 2140 Lecture 1 Philosophy: asks questions, uses concepts , reasoning Religion: base of culture (common beliefs) India China (6 century BCE) Greece (6 century) 800-600 BCE Confucius Thales Lao Tzu Philosophy vs. science: Greek said there were 4 elements: fire (energy), water (liquid), air (gas), earth (solid) (aether; brightness of sky) Knowledge= power Virtue= knowledge Modern knowledge= WET (humors) temperament DRY (elements) temper HOT AIR (blood) sanguine FIRE (yellow bile; gall) choleric COLD WATER (phlegm) phlegmatic EARTH (black bile) melancholic Fragments; never sure how accurate they are Lecture 2 Water principle of thing according to Thales 1. Water takes all three forms (all 3 conditions; gas, liquid solid) 2. Fluid; takes any shape Hule-lumber Materia Earth - Is the world eternal? - How does the world look from the outside? - Earth rests on water (water is the primary element) Anaximenes - Think cosmos is alive (need soul: breath; inspire), surrounded by air << From what is related about him, it seems that Thales too held that the soul is something productive of motion, if indeed he said that the lodestone has soul because it moves iron >>. P. 15 (8.) ­ soul energy ­ energy; ability to do work within itself << Some say the soul is mixed in with the whole universe and perhaps this is why Thales supposed that all things are full of gods >>. P.15 (7.) ­ world composed of rational (makes sense; reasons why things are a certain) ­ world govern by energy Hesiod; requests help of muses for claims he will make, reports the birth of gods with muses authority Theogony; story of the origins of the gods 1. Earth (Gaia) 2. Sky 3. Light (day) 4. Love ­ Gods aspect of nature ­ Nature is divine Artemis; Athena; Gods are natural phenomenon -Philosophy is an inherent pursuit << Some likeAnaximander... Declare that the earth stays at rest because of equality. For it is no more fitting for what is situated at the center and is equally far from the extremes to move up rather than down or sideways. And it is impossible for it to move in opposite directions at the same time. Therefore, it stays at rest of necessity >>. P.18 (17.) << Beginning humans were born from animals of different kind, since animals quickly manage on their own and humans alone require lengthy nursing. For this reason they would not have survived if they had been like this at the beginning>>. P.19 (19.) <>. P.19 (20.) (Humans are like fish) P.16 (9.)  anaximander said that apeiron was arkhe and element of things that are, was the first to introduce this name for arkhe (call arkhe- apeiron) -said that motion is eternal (heavens come to be) -says that arkhe is neither water nor any elements but some other nature (apeiron; all the heavens and the worlds in them) -the things that perish into things from they come to be; necessity, for they pay penalty and retribution to each other for their injustice in accordance with ordering time -apeiron; no boundaries -indefinite (no) everything that exist is definite -elements -things - time is moving image of eternity Lecture 3 < Nature (physis) loves to hide >  logos: word, argument, reason fragment 1. There is rules being followed, unity is logos everything happens for a reason  unexpected/unhoped for unbelief  irrational  things happen by chance Lecture 4 < a lifetime is a child playing, playing checkers; the kingdom belongs to a child> < To god all things are beautiful and good and just but humans have supposed some unjust and others just> < dogs bark at everyone they do not know>  Everything we don’t understand; we reject < the sea is the purest and most polluted water; to fish drinkable and bringing safety to human undrinkable and destructive> < asses would choose rubbish rather than gold>  to us the world is random  has were human we have no insight (point of view not any better than theirs)  humans are one part of a whole, fish another part of a whole  each species has its own beliefs  finest harmony works according to strife  strife is the harmony that makes the whole e.g. Darwin (competition), competition leads to equilibrium < things taken together are whole and not whole (something that is) being brought together and brought apart, in tune and out of tune out of all things there comes a unity and out of a unity all things>  things can be different but in harmony at the same time  look at the world in 2 ways; all things, individual things (collection; no pole (collection of a lot of things); fundamental unity  beautiful sound is from the contraction of the 2 forces pulling away from each other (what the world is made of)  nature of the whole is at rest, eternal nature (doesn’t change), parts always change (contradiction)  time  eternity is at rest while its always changing temporally Golding rule helps to follow what is common Follow what is common whole common 3 stages: 1) private world 2) common world 3) unity  sleep: dream (private world)  when we wake up (common world)  awakening (unity) waking = “awakening” dreaming waking < those who speak with understanding must rely firmly on what is common to all as a city must rely on law, and much more firmly. For all human laws are nourished by one law the divine law; for it has as much power as it wishes and it sufficient for all and is still left over>  will (private world)  law (common world)  divine law (unity) Lecture 5  Way to achieve this common unity is to think  Thinking (impersonal, universal), emotion (personal), sense perception (individuals)  everyone changes (not the same)  can’t define an element  things are not the way they appear to be  able to see our errors and correct them Fragment 69:  universals  important that we see things for ourselves and not hear things by others (listening with our eyes= logos; listening with our ears listening to them)  listening to the logos= thinking  waking up; ourselves  search by myself (im the one doing the searching)  within us; find it within us  within ourselves discover more (more we see more were able to see)  look within ourselves fragment 57: justice is universal  observe the way things operate  uses your senses but see them as a role material of thinking  if you want to find gold you have to work  do a lot of observation  non sufficient condition; without this you cant get what you want  sufficient condition: if you have this you can get what you want  have a soul or mind has to understand the logos that are implicit  abstract ideas, species, elements  everything is always dying; always becoming something different  not the same anymore Lecture 6 < Most men’s teacher is Hesiod. They are sure he knew most things a man who could not recognized day and night for they are one.> =>  cant have one without the other  end is beginning and beginning is the end  changes with the Kairos  mix god with time; theses things occur at different times Kairos (something to do at the right time)  indefinite  temporal individuality is an illusion  anicca; its wrong to say yes and to say no (in between yes +no)  life has value; can experience those values within ourselves  we should have a character; determines how we behave in life  follow free will  everyone acting with their own character is how god steered things  some is bad; punish for it  God= love everyone  Heraclitus= most are bad a) Ordinary people; some people are good others are bad b) God; everything is good c) Heraclitus; some are good and some are bad GOOD BAD Ordinary Pleasure Pain (fits my desires) (being asleep) (being asleep) God Everything Nothing Heraclitus Divine point of view Ordinary point of view (walring) (sleep) (awakened) Lecture 7   common oppose to private   he says what is just is people fighting with each other   harmony = strife   what appears to us as strife, appears to god as harmony     world= force of string, bringing together and separating apart   need to have people fighting with each other= meaning of the world (human  being)   benefits that we get from suffering     world needs thing to be stirred up­ keep the harmony (mixture of thing)  driven by some sort of violence, if there’s nothing uncomfortable why do we  change (if were comfortable with our point of view why would we change­ will  eventually wake us up)     suffer from injustice­ not gonna look for something better (justice)   people don’t pay doctor as much as they think they deserve (cutting them and  burning­ suppose to pure you )    Heraclitus is saying that pain and suffering is good for us      we have to do what seems right to us (recognize what seem to us)   nothing is bad, doesn’t matter what we do (unmotivated), he says that we have to  follow our character – do what we think is right   act on my views, realize that other people has to act on your views (bring strife)   letters crooked; strife leads in a common direction  (even sleepers and coworkers are still contributing to the universe)  both necessary for nature as a whole:  1. Intrinsic goodness; own sake (money is good because it can buy you things but it  doesn’t make you happy), good person – harmony  (unselfish point of view)  2. Instrumental goodness; sake of something else (money is good instrumentally),  ordinary point of view (asleep, selfish)  ­ strife, unhappy ­ aspects of a whole (superior)  ­ aspects of a part (partial point of view)  Parmenides  Fragment 3: for the same thing is for thinking and for being?   thinking and being are the same (Idealism: reality is in our thoughts)  ▯materialist : universe is like a big ball (equally distance)   line 22­28 p.57: divine revelation; key to truth, logic    line 11 ­  Lecture 8 1. it is + its impossible for it not to be (way of being) 2. it is not + its right not to be (way of not being) 3. it is  + its possible for it not to be (anything that exists)  ▯ ejects number 3­ its impossible for something to become nothing   4. it is not but its possible for it to be (anything possible) ▯ ejects number 4­ its impossible for something to come from nothing p.59  line 7­13   nothing comes from nothing   what is (comes from what is not)  line 13: nor will the force of true conviction ever permit anything to come to be  beside it from what is not for this reason neither coming to be nor perishing did  justice allow. ­ its impossible for what is to become nothing  ­ (nothing  being) ­ if it exist necessarily it cannot stop existing ­ Parmenides; logic (nothing ever changes)  Fragment 7 p.59 ▯  evidences  Senses; tell us that there are things that comes from nothing and some that  becomes nothing  Reason; can’t rely on our senses, why would we believe that something exist=  what we can think (and say). There is nothing  e.g.            if its impossible to be known than it is impossible to exist   we cant know rational (concept but no content) e.g.   e.g.  p.61 fragment 8, line 50   road/towns (most familiar with), everywhere but we don’t see it (in contact but we  don’t notice it)  Parmenides Fragment 7:   We see thing coming from nothing    Senses and reason  Zeno  Fragment 6  to traverse any space you have to traverse all of it (can go from one place to  another)  Fragment 7  a slower runner can catch up to the fastest runner  Fragment 10  arrow at particular place at time, its at rest, always at rest; cant move (arrow; get  out of the way)  Parmenides fragment 4     what happens once is going to happen all the time   reason does not perceive individuals at all­ works by definition; can’t define an  individual (definition= something that’s always true), concepts; universals but not  individuals (human being)   ▯  concept and universal don’t change   ▯reason sees everything as one (brings everything together), no time    senses perceive individuals – but not universals  Fragment 8    reality is just one  motion­ not real  Truth or being  Appearance ­ exist but aren’t fully real  Non­being ­ doesn’t exist      timeless (was and it will be; from our POV)  was but could stop being   if we rely on our sense; changing individuals    reasons; universals unchanging    example; HERACLITUS fragment 11.  and PARMENIDES   logos; all things are one  differences from both as to do with time  HERACLITUS fragment 81.   god is being time (day and night, winter and summer, war and peace, satiety and  hunger) PARMENIDES  HERACLITUS  Opinions (Appearances) Way of appearing  Sleeping (senses) Senses  Truth  Way of truth reason  Waking  (logos reason)   Individuals changing things  Unity that is unchanged  Lecture 10  Plato p.58 107A and B: theme;  do we have an immortal soul  (soul ▯ for breath; something alive it breath)  1. biological sense; soul is a principle of life 2. Physical­ energy  3. Psychological­ conscious self  4. Religious   empsuchon, animal; as a soul ­ living thing  world­ soul (soul must be immortal)   ­ appetite ­ dominance  ­ competitive ­ reason p.32 d  Haides; un seeable (invisible), god of the dead   Anything they cant see with their eyes is unreal (people are scared of death)   1.Persuasive  a) respond to objections  b) Socrates authority  2. Selective  3. To make us think  p.64 ; 7 philosopher died; challenged conventional views  5. 38 C  self controlled   self serving  ­ stage 1; breaks down everything we believed  ­ stage 2: rational way to replace that  second letter; selective  1. Conventional surface  2. Obstacles to accepting it at face value  3. Positive directions­ guidance (what’s happening below the surface)  => 3 levels in a dialogue:  Surface positive  ▯negative  ▯implicit positive  Lecture 11  myth; teach us something  p.6  59e   pleasure and pain at the same time    later says man cannot have both at the same time  => Phaedo: Pleasure/pain (mental)  => Socrates: so­called pleasure/pain (p
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