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Lecture 1

PHIL 2280 Lecture 1: PHIL2280- Week 1 cont.
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5 Pages
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2017

Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHIL 2280
Professor
Omid Payrow Shabani
Lecture
1

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PHIL2280- Week 2 continued
Justice:
Happens in the context of a city
Socrates tries to show how someone could expect to see justice in the
city
According to the doctrine of the four cardinal virtues, in a good city
e’ll see wisdom, courage, moderation and justice (427e)
Justice, according to Socrates, is to be found in the attribute of a city
which allows for the first 3 qualities to come to the fore (433 a, b, c)
o No one interferes ith aothe’s usiess
This is so because for Socrates, justice means the harmony that results
fo the otol ad the oet pefoae of oe’s o task
(434a)
Injustice means harm to the city which results from the three classes
meddling in each othe’s affais 
“oates’ et oe is to suggest  a of aalog  that if the
same kinds of attributes are found in an individual as in the just City,
then the individual must be just too (435c)
In the same way that there are three classes of money-makers,
auxiliary, and deliberative rulers in the city, the soul of an individual
too, has three parts:
o Desiring or appetitive part
o Rational part
o The spirited part (441c, d)
Justie i idiiduals does’t lie i thei eteal atios ut i the a
they act with themselves and their inner parts
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2
o Justice for an individual means that he does not allow for the
three parts of his soul to meddle with each other, or for himself
to id othe people’s usiess d
Virtue of justice then seems to be a certain health, beauty, and good
condition of a soul (444e)
3. Sexual equality among guardians
Socrates argues that wives of guardians should get the required
training and education to be able to perform the same tasks as male
guardians (451c, d)
He considers that some may ridicule this idea because it might appear
contrary to costume that women should wrestle naked the same way
that men do (452a)
o For him, ridicule is not a good reason to prevent women to take
up guardian tasks since not long before, people laughed at men
exercising naked
Why is this view so totalitarian and conservative?
Socrates considers the objection that if men and women are different
by nature, how can we expect them to do the same work? (453b, c)
o “oates’ espose is that the diffeee is not in their nature
but in their appearance in the same way that a bald man is
different from a long-haired man (454c)
o Woe  atue shae all pusuits, as e, ut i all of the
oe ae phsiall eake eatues tha e , 
4. Is the just city possible?
Gie Plato’s theo of fos, “oates agues that sie it as
possible to establish the city in theory it should be possible to realize it
in reality
The foremost change in the existing cities that can enable them to be
governed justly is for them to be ruled by philosophers or that their
ule stud philosoph, util politial poe ad philosoph oalese
(455)
But what is it that qualifies philosophers beyond others?
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Description
PHIL2280 Week 2 continued Justice: Happens in the context of a city Socrates tries to show how someone could expect to see justice in the city According to the doctrine of the four cardinal virtues, in a good city well see wisdom, courage, moderation and justice (427e) Justice, according to Socrates, is to be found in the attribute of a city which allows for the first 3 qualities to come to the fore (433 a, b, c) o No one interferes with anothers business This is so because for Socrates, justice means the harmony that results from the control and the correct performance of ones own task (434a) Injustice means harm to the city which results from the three classes meddling in each others affairs (434c) Socrates next move is to suggest by way of analogy (435b) that if the same kinds of attributes are found in an individual as in the just City, then the individual must be just too (435c) In the same way that there are three classes of moneymakers, auxiliary, and deliberative rulers in the city, the soul of an individual too, has three parts: o Desiring or appetitive part o Rational part o The spirited part (441c, d) Justice in individuals doesnt lie in their external actions but in the way they act with themselves and their inner parts
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