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Lecture 3

PHIL 3060 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: The Good Life, Sophia (Wisdom), Intuition

Course Code
PHIL 3060
Peter Eardley

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01/15/2018 Lecture 3: Aristotle on Virtue
Aristotle on The Good Life
Emphasizes the overall end human beings should pursue in their lives eudaimonia
o Happiness = eudaimonia = well spirited
o the good life is achieed through happiess
o Happiness is achieved through living a virtuous life (aka human excellence)
Virtue = arete = excellence
What is a good life?
o Must first ask what the function of human life is
o The good life can be achieved when our function is fulfilled
Function = ergon
Characteristic activity of human beings is rationality
Therefore, the good life would consist of using the function of rationality well
There are differet ays of liig a ratioal, good life
Good or bad luck can affect our chances of living the good life
Internal goods (to the soul) mainly refers to the virtues (excellence of character)
External goods (outside the sould) things like friends, money, health, etc.
Aristotle on the Soul
There is a rational part of the soul refers to activities of grasping universals and desire that
arises from cognizing the good
o Will and intellect are part of the rational soul
o Only humans have this
There is a sensitive part of the soul refers to activities of perception and desire
o Animals also have this
There is a vegetative part of the soul refers to activities of growth and reproduction
o Plants and animals also have this
Aristotle on Virtue
Two types of virtue/excellence
o Intellectual virtue origin and growth of these kind of virtues is through instruction and
inclination to do something
Productive wisdom = techne virtue of knowing how to produce things
Prudence/practical wisdom virtue of knowing how to make good choices in life
Scientific knowledge virtue of knowing those things that are necessary or
cannot be otherwise
Intellectual intuition ex. all men are mortal, Socrates is a man, Socrates is
Wisdom (Sophia) possessing both scientific knowledge and intellectual
o Moral virtue origin and growth of these kind of virtues comes from habit
Doctrine of the Mean refers to the right amount of something
The virtuous person exhibits the right amount of whatever at hand
The right aout ca ary fro perso to perso
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