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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 - Diffraction & Resolution

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University of Guelph
PHYS 1070
The Great Orbax

Diffraction & Resolution txt. Ch. 3 sec. 2, 3, 11 SG 4.1, 4.2 Experiment 4: Diffraction & Resolving Power -EM Waves -Diffraction -Diffraction Patterns -Double and single slit -circular aperture -Resolution -Ability to distinguish between points -rayleigh criterion -Friday Oct. 14th, Quiz #2 -Exp. 2&3, Pre-test -Acoustics as they relate to lab, standing waves, SOS, Resonance -SG #3 The Nature of Light -for the unit on optics we treated light as if it were a ray -effectively a particle moving with some velocity -we neglected the WAVE nature of light -when light travels through infinetely large openings it travels as a ray, however as we DECREASE the size of those openings we eventually discover its WAVE properties -LIGHT is an ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE -Visible light is a SMALL part of the E-M spectrum -E-M waves differ from sound waves in that NP material motion is involved -JUST ENERGY -An EM wave arises from closely coupled oscillations of the ELECTRIC (E) and MAGNETIC (B) fields -google 'e&m fields" -The wave is TRANSVERSE ALL EM waves travel at c >speed of light in a vacuum We characterize the light in the visible spectrum by wavelength, period, frequency, amplitude, velocity -These still hold for EM waves! v = f x λ c = f x λ λ = c / f -Therefore we speak about Em waves in terms of λ -LIGHT & EM WAVES can be -reflected -refracted & -diffracted >ability to bend around an obstacle DIFFRACTION -Waves can BEND around obstacles -Happens with ALL waves e.g. a person will hear a sound from a source because it bends around a door -When a wave hits an obtacle or an APERTURE/OPENING which is not too much larger than the wavelength, it will BEND DIFFRACTION PATTERNS are due to INTERFERENCE between waves Ex. TWO SLITS LIGHT -> WORKBOOK How's this work> -the two waves superpose to gice interference WORKBOOK At A there is CONSTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE At B there is DESTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE WORKBOOK Interence from two Point Sources We assume l >> y and l >> d If so, then lines 1 and 2 are parelle, and their path difference is (sigma) WORKBOOK if the path difference is λ / 2, then wave 2 travels λ / 2 more than wave 1 to reach P... WORKBOOK WAVES Waves will cancel if path difference is λ / 2, 3λ / 2, etc. BUT they will ADD constructively if (s
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