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Lecture 18

POLS 1150 Lecture 18: Electoral Systems (Il) (February 27)

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Political Science
POLS 1150
Mark Yanisziewski

Lecture 18: Electoral Systems (Il) – February 27 Reading: Valerie Heitshusen, Garry Young, and David M. Wood, “Electoral Context and MP Constituency Focus in Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom, American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 49, No. 1 (January 2005), pp. 32-45. [E-Journal] Plurality • Whoever gets the most votes overall • Two systems: single member constituencies and multi-member constituencies Single Member Constituencies • Most common • Vote for one specific person • Top individual to get the most votes wins the election Multi Member Constituencies • Same concept – instead, of the top one person being winner it could be the top two out of three winning together/working together • Used in some municipal elections in Canada • More than one winner in each riding • Used in provincial case – PEI (every riding elected two people), Polish senate Proportional Representation • Other most common way of elections is PR (proportional representation) • Number of seats party gets depends on share of votes party get o 23% of vote = approx. 23% of the seats • Which party gets to fill list? – parties list o Each party provides list equivalent to seats o A party list is every party's list of 100 names- 23% means the first 23 people on the list get elected • Common in Europe, etc. PR List Variations • Can be closed list or open list • Closed List o Used most of the time o Order names are ranked on list is decided by the party leadership o Voters have NO say in ranking/who is on ballot • Open List o Party still determines who is on list but, voters have SOME say in how ranked on list o Semi open lists o More votes/popular move up (vice versa) o Restrictions on far can be pushed up/fall on the list o Netherlands, Brazil Thresholdof Proportional Representation • Typically, there is minimum % party has to get to be rewarded seats o All votes below threshold aw
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