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Presidential System.docx

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Political Science
POLS 1150

1 POLS 1150 - 01 Presidential System Wednesday October 9 2013 Separation of Powers • presidential system is said to be pluralist - guards against the tyranny of the majority • -power is not concentrated in one function but is distributed among institutions (legislative, executive, judicial) through checks and balances President president is elected directly, however there is a mediation through the electoral college which wins through the states. Unitary Executive • formal executive • political executive • sole executive power Directly Elected • role of electoral college (plurality) Separate from legislature • different fixed tenure • no role within legislature • head administration Presidential powers • ceremonial head of state • -symbol of the nation • head of administration • -power over bureaucracy 2 • head of armed forces • -directs foreign policy • directs the cabinet, white house staff • it can be very political in appointing members • during the Reagan admin, there was a proposed affirmative action plan, however Reagan was very against this • so, he appointed Clarence Thomas (black republican) to the supreme court • during his tenure there was a huge scandal -Anita hill - she worked for Thomas when the appointment was made and going to the senate to be approved • she was a brilliant law student, and she alerted those who were questioning Thomas, that he had sexually harassed her • this became part of a senate inquiry • he made sure that the affirmative action very vaguely fulfilled its mandate • in directing the cabinet, President will choose experts in the field • the president has all of the power, and choosing the people who fulfill the jobs enhance the admin • the staff are partisan Executive relationship with the legislature • can only recommend legislature, does not make it • carries out laws passed by congress • -executive order - are ways the president relays to the public service in what needs to be done to carry out the law • the president has a lot of power in being able to veto the legislation • can also refuse to sign legislation, however a certain period of time needs to pass and the legislature can sign it anyway (if there is no veto) 3 • if someone decides to take a stand, they have to come back with 2/3 of both houses, which is not easy • is not dependent on legislative majority in power • -removed by impeachment • -role of house of representatives, senate The Legislature • congress is bicameral - symmetrical power (both have equal power) • -house of representatives, senate • -separate from the executive • -government body that makes the laws • it has to go through both, and there is a harmonizing committee in order to fuse them • fragmented when it comes to legislation • -separate elections for each • so there are congressional elections every 2 years, some senators, and all of the house are elected • every 4 years some of the senators and he president are elected in the same year • this fragments parties, alliances, new members • -weak party disciplines • -a different party may dominate in each chamber Separate Responsibilities • another reason why it can be fragmented • -money bills can only come from the house of representatives • -senate approves a;; presidential appointments the The supreme Court 4 • upon appeal can strike down any law (state or national) and can initiate law through rulings. Good Example, segregation • the court actively takes up its responsibility when it comes to the law The challenges of fragmented power • separation of powers and public policy • -logrolling with legislation - representative member starts a bill for a purpose (ex. the environment). That person will have found representatives and senators who agree and tries to find enough people to vote in the house of reps, and later in the senate • in order to get this number of people, there may be someone who wants federal money to put crosswalks somewhere- they will out a vote in if they support theory bill • another person will sign on of you will out a rider on the bill that no money can go to clinic that performs abortions • with omnibus bills - many things will be out together in a package that no one ahs the time to read through Whom do the electors hold responsible? • two recent cases have been newt gingrich's republicans and the current republicans Semi - Presidentialism • strong president in parliamentary system • he differentiates into premier • he cites the sources involved in semi presidential systems • in France there is a strong president, but a parliamentary system beside him • - directly elected president • -parliamentary P.M • the cabinet cannot sit in the legislature (like a presidential system) • the cabinet and P.M are responsible to the committee but cannot have a seat • Dyarchy - a balance of power between the president and parliament 5 • - president
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